And Moses came to you with clear proofs, miracles, such as the staff, his hand, and the parting of the sea; then you took to yourselves the calf, as a god, after him, after he had gone to the appointment, and you were evildoers, for taking it [in worship].
Although The Jews denied the Truth, They claimed to be Believers!
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ
(And when it is said to them), meaning, the Jews and the People of the Book,
ءَامِنُواْ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ
(Believe in what Allah has sent down) to Muhammad, believe in and follow him,
قَالُواْ نُؤْمِنُ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ عَلَيْنَا
(They say, "We believe in what was sent down to us.'') meaning, it is enough for us to believe in what was revealed to us in the Tawrah and the Injil, and this is the path that we choose,
وَيَكْفُرونَ بِمَا وَرَآءَهُ
(And they disbelieve in that which came after it).
وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ
(while it is the truth confirming what is with them) meaning, while knowing that what was revealed to Muhammad,
الْحَقُّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ
(it is the truth confirming what is with them). This means that since what was sent to Muhammad conforms to what was revealed to the People of the Book, then this fact constitutes a proof against them. Similarly, Allah said,
("Why then have you killed the Prophets of Allah aforetime, if you indeed have been believers'').
This means, "If your claim that you believe in what was revealed to you is true, then why did you kill the Prophets who came to you affirming the Tawrah's Law, although you knew they were true Prophets You killed them simply out of transgression, stubbornness and injustice with Allah's Messengers. Therefore, you only follow your lusts, opinions and desires.'' Similarly, Allah said,
(Say (O Muhammad to them): "Why then have you killed the Prophets of Allah aforetime, if you indeed have been believers'').''
وَلَقَدْ جَآءَكُم مُّوسَى بِالْبَيِّنَـتِ
(And indeed Musa came to you with clear proofs) meaning, with clear signs and clear proofs that he was the Messenger of Allah and that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah. The clear signs -or miracles- mentioned here are the flood, the locusts, the lice, the frogs, the blood, the staff and the hand. Musa's miracles also include parting the sea, shading the Jews with clouds, the manna and quails, the gushing stone, etc.
ثُمَّ اتَّخَذْتُمُ الْعِجْلَ
(yet you worshipped the calf) meaning, as a deity instead of Allah, during the time of Musa. Allah's statement,
(after he left) after Musa went to Mount Tur to speak to Allah. Similarly, Allah said,
And Moses came to you with clear proofs; then you took to yourselves the calf after him and you were evildoers. That is “he called you to declare [God's] unity tawḥīd and separate the [proper] object of worship from any other object of worship maʿbūd and limited thing maḥdūd. But you were not inclined to worship anything except what was attractive to you-the calf you adopted for yourselves and the idol you desired.” [The calf] was taken from them but its traces remained in their hearts and in the hearts of those who came after them. Because of that most Jews believe in anthropomorphism tashbīh.