Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
Allah then mentioned His blessings upon the Children of Israel, saying: (O Children of Israel!) O Children of Jacob, (Remember My favour), be thankful and grateful for my blessings (wherewith I favoured you), I favoured you with the Scripture and the emissary, escape from Pharaoh and from drowning as well as sending you honey and quails and other blessings, (and fulfil My covenant) fulfil my covenant regarding this Prophet (pbuh) (I shall fulfil your covenant), by admitting you to Paradise, (and fear Me) as regards the breaking of this covenant and do not fear anyone save Me.
O children of Israel! Remember My blessings with which I blessed you. And be loyal to My covenant; I will be loyal to your covenant. And of Me have dread.
This is an allusion to the Real's gentleness, generosity, and loving kindness toward the servants. He reminds them of His favor toward them: “I am the generous Lord, the thankful, the forgiver of the servants. I have come forth with kindness despite every disloyalty, I invite the servants to praise Me despite all their offenses, and I ask them to be grateful for My blessings.” This is why He says to the children of Israel, “Remember My blessings! O children of Israel, be grateful for My blessings and recognize your duty toward Me so that you will be worthy of increase and have good name and good fortune.”
There is a great difference between the children of Israel and this community. To them He said, “Remember My blessings!” To this community He said, “Remember Me!” [2:152]. He gave them blessings and He gave this community companionship. He kept those away from Himself by the witnessing of blessings, and He kept these with Himself by stipulating love. The tongue of this state says,
“I traveled to you seeking the highest things, but others traveled seeking a good life.”
The Pir of the Tariqah said, “O God, the one who does the work is he who has work with You, the one who has a friend is he whose friend is the likes of You. How could he who has You in the two worlds leave You aside! The wonder is that he who has You weeps more than anyone else. He who has not found weeps at not having found-why then does he who finds also weep?”
When the like of You is someone's friend, if he complains, that's disgraceful.
And be loyal to My covenant; I will be loyal to your covenant. There are many verses like this in the Qur'an: “Supplicate Me; I will respond to you [40:60]. So remember Me; I will remember you [2:152]. My servant! Open a door so that I may open a door. Open the door of turning back so that I may open the door of good news: They turned back to God, and for them is good news [39:17].
Open the door of expending so that I may open the door of replacement: Whatever you expend, He will replace it [34:39]. Open the door of struggle so that I may open the door of guidance: Those who struggle in Us, We will guide them on Our paths [29:69]. Open the door of asking forgiveness so that I may open the door of forgiveness: And then asks forgiveness of God, he will find God forgiving, ever-merciful [4:110]. Open the door of gratitude so that I may open the door of increased blessings: If you give thanks, I will surely increase you [14:7]. My servant, come back to My covenant so that I may come back to your covenant: Be loyal to My covenant; I will be loyal to your covenant.”
It has been said that God has many covenants with His servant and, in each covenant in which the servant has loyalty, the Lord of the Worlds has a loyalty as its counterpart. First is that the servant makes manifest the words of the Shahadah. Its counterpart from the Lord of the Worlds is the rightful due of blood and property. That is in His words, “When someone says 'No god but God,' his wealth and property are protected from Me.” The last is that if the servant keeps his gaze pure and watches over his thoughts, its counterpart from the Lord of the Worlds will be this: “I
have prepared for My wholesome servants what no eye has seen, what no ear has heard, and what has never passed into the heart of any mortal.” Between that beginning and this end are many intermediaries, and these are God's covenants with the servant in which the servant's part is deeds and words, and God's part is reward beyond reckoning.
Among these intermediaries are these, as one of them has said: “Be loyal to My covenant by presence at the gate; I will be loyal to your covenant with great reward. Be loyal to My covenant by guarding the secrets; I will be loyal to your covenant with My beautiful acts of kindness. Be loyal to My covenant by not preferring any other to Me; I will be loyal to your covenant by not holding back My gentleness and good. Be loyal to My covenant with beautiful struggle; I will be loyal to your covenant with constant contemplation.
Be loyal to My covenant by truthfulness in love; I will be loyal to your covenant with perfect proximity. Be loyal to My covenant in the abode of My tribulation on the carpet of serving Me by venerating Me; I will be loyal to your covenant in the abode of My blessings on the carpet of proximity with the joy of union. Be loyal to My covenant that you accepted on the Day of the Compact; I will be loyal to your covenant that I have assured for you on the Day of the Encounter. Be loyal to My covenant by saying endlessly, 'My Lord!'; I will be loyal to your covenant by saying to you, 'My servant!'”
And of Me have dread. This is the same as His saying, “And of Me be wary” [2:41]. Dread and wariness are two of the stations of the fearful. There are six degrees of the fearful in the road of the religion: the repenters, the worshipers, the renouncers, the knowers, the recognizers, and the sincerely truthful.
The repenters have fear, as He says: “They fear a day when eyes and hearts will be turned about” [24:37]. The worshipers have quaking: “Those whose hearts quake when God is remembered” [8:2]. The renouncers have dread: “They were supplicating Us in eagerness and dread” [21:90]. The knowers have fright: “The only ones of His servants who are frightened of God are the knowers” [35:28]. The recognizers have trembling: “Surely those who tremble in fear of their Lord” [23:57]. The sincerely truthful have awe: “And God warns you of Himself ” [3:28].
Fear is the fear of the repenters and beginners, the fortress of faith, and the cure-all and weapon for the person of faith. Anyone without this fear has no faith and has no way to security. Anyone who has it has faith in the same measure.
Quaking is the fear of the living-hearted. It releases them from heedlessness, opens up the road of self-purification to them, and curtails their wishing.
Just as quaking is greater than fear, dread is greater than quaking. Dread cuts off a man's delight in life and cuts him off from people. In the world it separates him from the world. When someone fears like this, he sees his own soul as a debt to be paid, all his words as complaint, and all his acts as offenses.
Sometimes, he seeks aid like the drowning, sometimes he beats himself in the head like the mourning, sometimes he sighs like the ill.
The fear of the recognizers, which is trembling, appears from quaking. This is a fear that places no veil before supplication, no mask before perspicacity, and no wall before hope. It is a melting and killing fear that does not relax until this call is heard: “Fear not and grieve not, and rejoice!” [41:30]. This fearful person is sometimes burned, sometimes caressed, sometimes called, sometimes killed. He does not sigh from the burning, nor does he complain of the killing.
How You kill me! And how I love You!
O marvel! How I love the killer!
After trembling comes awe, the fear of the sincerely truthful. This fear rises up from face-to-face vision, the other fears from reports. Something flashes in the heart like lightning. The body cannot bear it, and the spirit does not have the capacity to remain with it. Mostly this happens during the time of ecstasy and listening [samāʿ], just as it happened to Moses at the Mount: And Moses fell down thunderstruck [7:143]. Never say that this awe comes from threats; rather, it comes from being aware of the Compeller.
When a speck of actual face-to-face vision is unveiled,
neither heart escapes nor spirit, neither unbelief nor faith.
It is this that is alluded to in the Prophet's words, “His veil is light. Were it removed, the glories of His face would burn away everything perceived by the eyes.”
O Children of Israel, sons of Jacob, remember My favour wherewith I favoured you, that is, your forefathers, saving them from Pharaoh, parting the sea, sending clouds as shelter and other instances, for which you should show gratitude by being obedient to Me; and fulfil My covenant, that which I took from you, that you believe in Muhammad (s), and I shall fulfil your covenant, that which I gave to you, that you shall be rewarded for this with Paradise; and be in awe of Me, fear Me and not anyone else when you have abandoned belief in him [the Prophet].
O Children of Israel, remember My favour wherewith I favoured you and that I have preferred you above all the worlds [Q. 2:47] [and fulfil My covenant, and I shall fulfil your covenant; and have awe of Me]. The Children of Israel are the people of the divine gentleness and the recipients of the favour of guidance and prophethood. He calls to them with gentleness and a reminder of the former favour and the bygone covenant taken from them in the Torah to affirm the unity of the acts after the pre-eternal covenant, which is the way with [one's] beloved after [a period of] estrangement:
Were there not between us ties of kinship and bonds
As well as affection and brotherhoodḍ
This [divine] call is specifically qualified by the affirmation of the unity of [His] attributes that is the lifting of the second veil. It is more specific than the first general call made to remind [them] of the favour of religion and the covenant and the [divine] self-disclosure through the attribute of favour-giver and guardian. The threat against the failure to respond [to this divine call] is made in terms of 'awe' (rahba), which is more specific than fear (khawf); for fear is [the reaction] to punishment, while awe is that to wrath and overwhelming power causing reluctance and becoming veiled from something; apprehension (khashya) is more specific than [awe] because it is specific to the veiling of the essence. God, exalted be He, says: They are apprehensive of their Lord and fear an awful punishment [Q. 13:21]; likewise 'awe' because it is connected to the greatness of the essence.
Encouraging the Children of Israel to embrace Islam
Allah commanded the Children of Israel to embrace Islam and to follow Muhammad. He also reminded them with the example of their father Israel, Allah's Prophet Ya`qub, as if saying, "O children of the pious, righteous servant of Allah who obeyed Allah! Be like your father, following the truth.'' This statement is similar to one's saying, "O you son of that generous man! Do this or that'' or, "O son of the brave man, engage the strong fighters,'' or "O son of the scholar, seek the knowledge,'' and so forth. Similarly, Allah said,
Mujahid commented, "Allah's favor that He granted the Jews is that He made water gush from stones, sent down manna and quails for them, and saved them from being enslaved by Pharaoh.'' Abu Al-`Aliyah also said, "Allah's favor mentioned here is His sending Prophets and Messengers among them, and revealing Books to them.'' I - Ibn Kathir - say that this Ayah is similar to what Musa said to the Children of Israel,
(O my people! Remember the favor of Allah to you: when He made Prophets among you, made you kings, and gave you what He had not given to any other among the nations (of their time) (5:20) meaning, during their time. Also, Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Ibn `Abbas said,
(Remember My favor which I bestowed upon you,) means, "My support for you and your fathers,'' that is saving them from Pharaoh and his people.
Reminding the Children of Israel of Allah's Covenant with Them
وَأَوْفُواْ بِعَهْدِى أُوفِ بِعَهْدِكُمْ
(And fulfill (your obligations to) My covenant (with you) so that I fulfill (My obligations to) your covenant (with Me),) means, `My covenant that I took from you concerning Prophet Muhammad, when he is sent to you, so that I grant you what I promised you if you believe in him and follow him. I will then remove the chains and restrictions that were placed around your necks, because of the errors that you committed.' Also, Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, "The `covenant' is in reference to Allah's statement, i
(Indeed, Allah took the covenant from the Children of Israel (Jews), and We appointed twelve leaders among them. And Allah said: "I am with you if you perform As-Salah and give Zakah and believe in My Messengers; honor and assist them, and lend a good loan to Allah, verily, I will expiate your sins and admit you to Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise)) (5:12).''
Other scholars said, "The covenant is what Allah took from them in the Tawrah, in that, He will send a great Prophet - meaning Muhammad - from among the offspring of Isma`il, who will be obeyed by all peoples. Therefore, whoever obeys him, then Allah will forgive his sins, enter him into Paradise and award him two rewards.'' We should mention here that Ar-Razi mentioned several cases of information brought by the earlier Prophets regarding the coming of Muhammad. Further, Abu Al-`Aliyah said that,
(And fulfill (your obligations to) My covenant (with you)) means, "His covenant with His servants is to embrace Islam and to adhere to it.'' Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said, "`I fulfill My obligations to you' means, `I (Allah) will be pleased with you and admit you into Paradise.''' As-Suddi, Ad-Dahhak, Abu Al-`Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said similarly.
Ibn `Abbas said that Allah's statement,
(And fear Me and Me alone.) means, "Fear the torment that I might exert on you, just as I did with your fathers, like the mutation, etc.'' This Ayah contains encouragement, followed by warning. Allah first called the Children of Israel, using encouragement, then He warned them, so that they might return to the Truth, follow the Messenger, heed the Qur'an's prohibitions and commands and believe in its content. Surely, Allah guides whom He wills to the straight path.
(And believe in what I have sent down, confirming that which is with you (the Tawrah and the Injil)) meaning, the Qur'an that Allah sent down to Muhammad, the unlettered Arab Prophet, as bringer of glad tidings, a warner and a light. The Qur'an contains the Truth from Allah and affirms what was revealed beforehand in the Tawrah and the Injil (the Gospel). Abu Al-`Aliyah said that Allah's statement,
(And believe in what I have sent down (this Qur'an), confirming that which is with you (the Tawrah and the Injil)) "means, `O People of the Book! Believe in what I sent down that conforms to what you have.' This is because they find the description of Muhammad recorded in the Tawrah and the Injil.'' Similar statements were attributed to Mujahid, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Qatadah.
وَلاَ تَكُونُواْ أَوَّلَ كَافِرٍ بِهِ
(and be not the first to disbelieve therein).
Ibn `Abbas commented, "Do not become the first to disbelieve in the Qur'an (or Muhammad ), while you have more knowledge in it than other people.'' Abu Al-`Aliyah commented, "`Do not become the first to disbelieve in Muhammad, ' meaning from among the People of the Book, `after you hear that he was sent as a Prophet.''' Similar statements were attributed to Al-Hasan, As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. Ibn Jarir stated that the Ayah (disbelieve therein 2:41) refers to the Qur'an, mentioned earlier in the Ayah,
(in what I have sent down (this Qur'an),)
Both statements are correct because they are inter-related. For instance, whoever disbelieves in the Qur'an will have disbelieved in Muhammad, and whoever disbelieves in Muhammad will have disbelieved in the Qur'an. Allah's statement,
أَوَّلَ كَافِرٍ بِهِ
(the first to disbelieve therein) means, do not become the first among the Children of Israel to disbelieve in it, for there were people from Quraysh and the Arabs in general who rejected Muhammad before the People of the Book disbelieved in him. We should state here that the Ayah is talking about the Children of Israel in specific, because the Jews in Al-Madinah were the first among the Children of Israel to be addressed by the Qur'an. Hence, their disbelief in the Qur'an means that they were the first among the People of the Book to disbelieve in it.
وَلاَ تَشْتَرُواْ بِآيَـتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلاً
(and buy not with My verses a small price,) means, "Do not substitute faith in My Ayat and belief in My Prophet with the life of this world and its lusts which are minute and bound to end. '' Allah said,
(and have Taqwa of Me and Me alone).
Ibn Abi Hatim reported that Talq bin Habib said, "Taqwa is to work in Allah's obedience, on a light from Allah, hoping in Allah's mercy, and to avoid Allah's disobedience, on a light from Allah, fearing Allah's punishment.'' Allah's statement,
(and fear Me and Me alone) means, that Allah warns the People of the Book against intentionally hiding the truth and spreading the opposite of it, as well as, against defying the Messenger.
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
'Israel' means the servant of Allah. This was the title that Allah had bestowed upon Jacob, who was a son of Isaac, and a grandson of Abraham (Allah's peace be upon them all ). His descendents are called children of Israel. Up to verse 39, it was an introductory discourse meant for all mankind. From verse 40 to verse 121 is a new discourse in which the children of Israel have been especially and particularly addressed. In some places it has also been directed towards the Christians and the mushriks of Arabia and in between towards the people who believed in the Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings). In order to understand the full significance of this address, the following should be kept in view. First, it aims to appeal to those few followers of the former Prophets, who were still capable of reforming themselves to believe in the Truth which the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) had brought and to cooperate with the mission which he had been appointed to perform. They are, therefore, told that the message of the Qur'an is the same as of the Scriptures of the former Prophets, and the mission of the Holy Prophet also was the same as theirs. It means to say: "At tirst this mission was entrusted to you so that you may put the Message into practice and then invite the world to accept it. But, not to speak of carrying out the mission, you discarded the Guidance and went on degenerating. The past history of your community and its present moral and religious degeneration are a standing witness against you. Now Allah has sent another Servant of His with the same Message and mission and there is nothing new or strange in this for you. You should not, therefore, oppose the Truth knowingly. The best thing for you is to accept it and cooperate with those who are doing the same work that was once entrusted to you." Secondly, it aims to argue the Jews out of their wrong position and to expose their moral and religious degeneration thoroughly. Therefore, it proves conclusively that their attitude towards Islam was absolutely wrong; for they were opposing it, whereas they knew that its fundamentals were exactly the same as of their religion and that there was nothing in the teachings of the Qur'an that was different from or opposed to the teachings of the Torah in principle. It also shows that they had utterly failed to follow the Guidance which was given to them and fulfil the obligations of the leadership entrusted to them. As a proof thereof, such incidents have been cited as they could not deny. Moreover, this address unravelled the plots they were hatching, the doubts they were arousing, the crooked arguments they were advancing and the evil machinations they were contriving to defeat the mission of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings), though they knew it to be from Allah. This also exposed their "piety", for it lacked sincerity and righteousness and was motivated by obduracy, prejudice and self-worship. It also proved beyond any shadow of doubt that they did not really want virtue to thrive. This produced the desired effect: it opened the eyes of the righteous element among the Jews and put an end to the spiritual and moral superiority they enjoyed against the common and polytheistic Arabs of Madinah. Besides, when they themselves were once exposed, they were so dismayed that they dared not oppose Islam openly with the courage of conviction. Thirdly, in the preceding verses, mankind had been invited to accept the Guidance of Allah. Now the example of the Israelites is being cited to show the consequences of discarding that Guidance. The reason why the Israelites have been held out as an example is that they are the only community whose history during the last four thousand years has been a living object lesson for all the nations of the world. In its history one can see all the ups and downs which result from following the Divine Guidance or from discarding it. Fourthly, though the appeal is addressed to the Jews, it is also meant to forewarn the Muslims against the pitfalls of degeneration into which the followers of the former Prophets had fallen. That is why, on the one hand, the moral weaknesses of the Jews, their wrong notions about religion, their wrong ways of thinking and living, have been pointed out, one by one, while, on the other, the demands of the true faith have been stated so that the Muslims are able to see the Right Way clearly and avoid wrong. ways. The Holy Prophet knew by Divine inspiration that, by and by, the Muslims also would follow the same ways that had been pointed out in this discourse. Therefore, according to a Tradition, he forewarned that they would discard the Guidance and follow, step by step, the communities of the former Prophets, that is, the Jews and the Christians, in their wrong ways. It is a pity that they have not paid any heed to this warning and adopted the same ways of degeneration.
O children of Israel remember My favor wherewith I favored you; The real meaning of “favor” niʿma according to the scholars is unadulterated pleasure as well as that which causes [the pleasure]. According to the people of reality favor is what causes you to witness remember or brings you to the One who grants the favor or does not veil you from Him. It can be divided into the favor of mortal beings and external things abshār wa-ẓawāhir and the favor of spirits and the innermost secrets of hearts arwāḥ wa-sarāÌir. The first are types of comforts and the second are modes of witnessings and unveilings. Among the inner favors are the knowledge of hearts and the love of spirits and the witnessings of the innermost hearts. It is said that He commanded the children of Israel to remember the favors and He commanded the community of Muḥammad ﷺ to remember the One who grants them. There is a difference between those who are told remember My favor and those who are told So remember Me I will remember you [2:152]. and fulfill My covenant and I shall fulfill your covenant; and have awe of Me. [For the terms of the covenant] He سبحانه asks for the safekeeping of knowledge maʿrifa and we ask for the means to forgiveness maghfira. He asks for the safekeeping of His love maḥābb and we ask for the kindness of His reward thawāb. He asks for presence at the door bāb and we ask for the generous place of return maÌāb. “Fulfill My covenant by safeguarding the secret sirr and I shall fulfill your covenant with beautiful kindness birr.” “Fulfill My covenant which you accepted on the Day of the Solemn Binding mīthāq and I shall fulfill your covenant which I insured for you on the Day of the Encounter talāq.” “Fulfill My covenant by not preferring others ghayrī to Me and I shall fulfill your covenant in not barring you from My kindness and goodness khayrī.” “Fulfill My covenant by caring for the things I entrusted to you wadāÌiʿ and I shall fulfill your covenant in what has been made lasting for you in the splendors of the flashes lawāmiʿ and the gleams of the rising Ṭawāliʿ.” “Fulfill My covenant by safeguarding My secrets asrārī and I shall fulfill your covenant in the beauty of My acts of kindness mabārrī.
” “Fulfill My covenant by continuing to seek knowledge of Me ʿirfānī and I shall fulfill your covenant in continuing My beneficence iḥsānī.” “Fulfill My covenant by performing service to Me and I shall fulfill your covenant with kindness in accepting it from you.” “Fulfill My covenant by performing [your] best efforts and works al-mujāhada wa-l-muʿāmala and I shall fulfill your covenant by [means of] ongoing intimate communication and witnessing al-muwāṣala wa-l-mushāhada.” “Fulfill My covenant by absolving yourself of power and strength al-ḥawl wa-l-munna and I shall fulfill your covenant by conferring abundance and grace al-Ṭawl wa-l-minna.” “Fulfill My covenant by favoring [Me] tafḌīl and relying [on Me] tawakkul and I shall fulfill your covenant by being sufficient [for you] and bestowing favor tafaḌḌul.” “Fulfill My covenant with sincere love maḥabba and I shall fulfill your covenant with the perfection of nearness qurba.” “Fulfill My covenant by being content from Me with Me and I shall fulfill your covenant by giving you satisfaction in yourselves.” “Fulfill My covenant in the abode of the unseen on the carpet of service bisāṬ al-khidma by tightening the belt of obedience and exerting the utmost effort and I shall fulfill your covenant in the abode of nearness on the carpet of communion with perpetual intimacy vision the hearing of [your] speech and the perfection of nearness.” “Fulfill My covenant by renouncing carnal desires shahawāt and I shall fulfill your covenant by being sufficient for you with these demands muṬālabāt.” “Fulfill My covenant by forever saying 'My Lord My Lord' and I shall fulfill your covenant by saying to you 'My servant My servant.'” And have awe of Me that is “fear Me alone because of My unique power to bring things into existence.” Fear is not appropriate toward those who possess not even a particle or a speck.
…And be in awe of Me.Sahl was asked, ‘What is this awe (rahba) that He commanded them to feel towards Him?’ He replied:He meant by this, the [true] locating of the light of certainty (mawḍiʿ nūr al-yaqīn) in relationto the heart’s insight (baṣar al-qalb), and gnosis (maʿrifa) in relation to the entirety of the heart (kulliyat al-qalb). For endurance (mukābada) and struggle (mujāhada) are a part of faith ⸢for the sake of God (īmān li’Llāh)⸣. Then, when the heart ceases to have fear of all other than Him, the light of certainty is unveiled, and the servant who abides in faith for the sake of God, attains ⸢to faith in [or through] God (īmān bi’Llāh)⸣, with an unshakeable realisationof His oneness (tawḥīdan ʿalā tamkīn), by which I mean, his heart is in a state of tranquil and confident repose with his Master (sukūn qalbihi ilā mawlāhu). Consequently, the light of certainty unveils the knowledge of the eye of certainty (ʿilm ʿayn al-yaqīn), and this is the attainment (wuṣūl) of God, Exalted is He. For this certainty, by virtue of the light of certainty (bi-nūr al-yaqīn) that leads to the eye of certainty, is not ⸢something that is brought into being (mukawwan)⸣, nor is it something created (makhlūq); rather it is a light from the light of the essence of God (dhāt al-Ḥaqq), not in the sense of an indwelling (ḥulūl), nor of conjoining (jamʿ), or conjunction (ittiṣāl). Rather, the meaning of the servant’s attainment (ittiṣāl) of his Master refers to the [true] locating (mawḍiʿ) of his realisation of the divine oneness, and his obedience to God and His Messenger.So, according to the strength of his perception (baṣar) of God, he will attain full awareness (taqwā) and awe (rahba) of Him. The root of full awareness of God is in relinquishing the lower self (mubāyanat al-nafs), so let [the servant] relinquish [the lower self] for this, and not accommodate any of the pleasures [demanded by] its desire (hawā), nor any of those pleasures to which it [the lower self] is summoning him, and for which it has no excuse. Know that human beings will vary in rank on the Day of Resurrection according to the measure of the light of certainty that they possess. The weightier the certainty a person has the heavier will his scales weigh, even though there might [otherwise] be less in his scales.He [Sahl] was asked, ‘How can you tell the soundness of someone’s certainty?’ To which he replied:By the strength of his confidence (thiqa) in God, Exalted is He, and his good opinion (ḥusn al-ẓann) of Him. Trust in God is witnessing (mushāhada) through certainty (yaqīn), the eye of certainty (ʿayn al-yaqīn), and the wholeness [of its vision] (kulliyyatihi). Its perfection and goal is the attainment of God, Mighty and Majestic is He.