Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(But the Devil caused them to deflect), caused them to slip (therefrom), from Paradise, (and expelled them from the state in which they were), from the comfort which they had enjoyed; (and We said) to Adam, Eve, the peacock and the serpent (Fall down) go down to the earth, (one of you a foe unto the other! There shall be for you on earth a habitation), a dwelling-place, (and a provision), a benefit and livelihood, (for a time) until the moment of death.
Look at this wonder: First He caressed the servant and put all his little jobs in order, then He sent him into tumult and overthrew what He had done for him, and then He rebuked him.
The Pir of the Tariqah said, “O God, You show your friends to the enemies and You turn the poor ones over to heartache and grief. You make them ill, and then You take care of them Yourself. You make them helpless, and then You heal them Yourself.
“You made Adam out of dust, and then You acted so beautifully toward him. You placed his happiness at the top of the ledger and made him the guest in paradise. You sat him in the garden of approval, You made a compact with him not to eat the wheat, and in Your unseen knowledge You hid the fact that he would in fact eat the wheat. Then You put him in prison, and You made him weep for years. Your all-compellingness does the work of compellers, Your lordhood does the work of lords. All of Your rebukes and war are aimed at Your friends.”
The Pir of the Tariqah was asked, “What do you say: Was Adam more complete in this world or in paradise?”
He said, “He was more complete in this world, for in paradise he fell into suspicion because of himself, but in this world he fell into suspicion because of passion.”
The Pir of the Tariqah said, “Take care not to have the opinion that Adam was taken out of paradise because of his lowliness. It was not that. Rather, it was because of the grandeur of his aspiration. The petitioner of passion came to the door of Adam's breast and said, 'O Adam, the beauty of meaning has been unveiled, but you have stayed in the abode of peace.' Adam saw an infinite beauty, next to which the beauty of the eight paradises was nothing. His great aspiration tightened its belt and said: 'If you ever want to fall in love, you must fall in love with that.'”
If there's no escape from feeding passion to the spirit I'll suffer passion's grief for the likes of You.
The command came, “Adam, now that you have stepped into the street of passion, leave paradise, for it is the house of ease.
What do the passionate have to do with the safety of the Abode of Peace?” May the throats of the passionate always be caught in the noose of trial!
Your passion came to my door and began to knock.
I didn't open it, so it burned it down.
Adam himself did not go-he was taken. Adam himself did not want-he was wanted.
The command came: “The veiled virgin of recognition wants a mate to be her fiancé.” They sifted the eighteen thousand worlds looking for a mate without finding one, for the majestic Qur'an gives news that “Nothing is as His likeness” [42:11].
The cherubim and the proximate angels lifted up their heads at the Exalted Threshold hoping that this crown would be placed on their heads and the veiled virgin of recognition would become their fiancé. The call went out, “You are the sinless and the pure of the Presence, You are the glorifiers of the Exalted Threshold. If I make you the fiancé, you will say that it is because you match her in holiness and purity. Far be it from the Unity that it should have a match or an equal! He begets not, nor was He begotten, and equal to Him is none [112:3-4].”
The Throne with its tremendousness, paradise with its adornment, heaven with its elevationeach fell to wishing, but to no avail. The call came: “Since the veiled virgin of recognition has no match, We in Our bountifulness will lift up the thrown-down dust and make it her fiancé.” He fastened to them the word of godwariness, to which they have more right and of which they are worthy [48:26].
This is like a king who has a daughter and can find no match for her in his empire. He raises up one of his slaves and bestows on him possessions, position, and exaltedness and appoints him to be the commander and leader of the army. Then he gives his daughter to him. Thus his generosity will appear, and the slave will have the worthiness for union.
The likeness of Adam the dust-dweller is exactly this. God made him the target of His arrow from the first. He fired one arrow of eminence from the bow of special favor with the hand of the attributes. The target of that arrow was Adam's makeup.
Take an arrow from the quiver in my name, then place it in Your mighty bow.
If You need a target here's my heart.
Yours-a strong shot. Mine-a sweet sigh.
The arrow reached the target. Hence MuṣṬafā reported this judgment to the world: “God created Adam in His form; his length was sixty cubits.” It is a sound report that the Lord of the worlds took a handful of dust with which He sculpted Adam. Adam's boldness and nearness reached the place that, when He told him to travel from paradise to the earth, he said, “O Lord, travelers don't go without supplies. What supplies will You give me for the road?”
He said, “O Adam, your supplies in the land of exile will be My remembrance. After that, on the day of Return, I promise you will see Me.”
Then Satan, Iblīs, caused them to slip, he caused them to be removed (fa-azallahumā: a variant reading has fa-azālahumā: he caused them to be away from it) therefrom, that is, from the Garden, when he said to them, ‘Shall I point you to the tree of eternity’ [cf. Q. 20:120], and swore to them by God that he was only giving good advice to them, and so they ate of it; and brought them out of what they were in, of bliss; and We said, ‘Go down, to earth, both of you and all those comprised by your seed; some of you, of your progeny, an enemy to the other, through your wronging one another; and in the earth a dwelling, a place of settlement, shall be yours, and enjoyment, of whatever of its vegetation you may enjoy, for a while’, [until] the time your terms [of life] are concluded.
Then Satan caused them to slip therefrom, that is, He led them to slip from their station in Paradise into the abyss of nature by seducing [them] with carnal pleasures and [the prospect of] their permanence for them; and brought them out of what they were in, of bliss and everlasting ease. It is said that while they were gazing around in the Garden a peacock surprised them appearing before them on the walls of the Garden. Eve drew close to it and Adam followed, whereupon Satan whispered to them from behind the wall. It is also said that he used a serpent that was scaling the [walls of the] Garden by holding onto its tail in order to climb into the Garden. The former [report] indicates that he used the passions as a means [to seduce them] from outside the Garden; the latter [an indication] of his use of anger, while his scaling the wall of the Garden is an indication that anger is closer to the spiritual horizon and the space occupied by the heart than passion; and We said, 'Go down, that is, We compelled them to go down to the lower aspect, which is the corporeal world; some of you an enemy to the other, a circumstantial qualification of [their] state, binding to that [descent], for the descent to this world, which is the lower aspect, requires that whatever is demanded in it be of a partial nature, given the confines of matter, restricted and unable to support more than one sharing in it, so that whenever one person acquires it, another is deprived of it and denied it. Thus enmity and hatred afflicts them [in this world] in contrast to universal demands. The plural form of address [some of you] is used because the address is directed to the [human] species, since the root always subsumes its branches; and in the earth, that is, in this aspect, a dwelling, a settling, shall be yours, and enjoyment for a while', that is, until their disengagement [from matter] upon voluntary death or the termination of their share through natural death and the arrival of the resurrection, be it the minor or the major one.
Allah honored Adam by commanding the angels to prostrate before him, so they all complied except for Iblis. Allah then allowed Adam to live and eat wherever and whatever he wished in Paradise. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah reported Abu Dharr saying, "I said, `O Messenger of Allah! Was Adam a Prophet' He said,
(Yes. He was a Prophet and a Messenger to whom Allah spoke directly), meaning
اسْكُنْ أَنتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ
((O Adam!) Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise.)''
Hawwa' was created before Adam entered Paradise
The Ayah (2:35) indicates that Hawwa' was created before Adam entered Paradise, as Muhammad bin Ishaq stated. Ibn Ishaq said, "After Allah finished criticizing Iblis, and after teaching Adam the names of everything, He said,
يَـاءَادَمُ أَنبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَآئِهِمْ
(O Adam! Inform them of their names) until,
إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ
(Verily, You are the Knower, the Wise.)
Then Adam fell asleep, as the People of the Book and other scholars such as Ibn `Abbas have stated, Allah took one of Adam's left ribs and made flesh grow in its place, while Adam was asleep and unaware. Allah then created Adam's wife, Hawwa', from his rib and made her a woman, so that she could be a comfort for him. When Adam woke up and saw Hawwa' next to him, it was claimed, he said, `My flesh and blood, my wife.' Hence, Adam reclined with Hawwa'. When Allah married Adam to Hawwa' and gave him comfort, Allah said to him directly,
("O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight, of things therein wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimin (wrongdoers).'').''
Allah tests Adam
Allah's statement to Adam,
وَلاَ تَقْرَبَا هَـذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ
(but come not near this tree) is a test for Adam. There are conflicting opinions over the nature of the tree mentioned here. Some said that it was the grape tree, barley, date tree, fig tree, and so forth. Some said that it was a certain tree, and whoever eats from it will be relieved of the call of nature. It was also said that it was a tree from which the angels eat so that they live for eternity. Imam Abu Ja`far bin Jarir said, "The correct opinion is that Allah forbade Adam and his wife from eating from a certain tree in Paradise, but they ate from it. We do not know which tree that was, because Allah has not mentioned anything in the Qur'an or the authentic Sunnah about the nature of this tree. It was said that it was barley, grape, or a fig tree. It is possible that it was one of those trees. Yet, this is knowledge that does not bring any benefit, just as being ignorant in its nature does no harm. Allah knows best.'' This is similar to what Ar-Razi stated in his Tafsir, and this is the correct opinion. Allah's statement,
فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَـنُ عَنْهَا
(Then the Shaytan made them slip therefrom) either refers to Paradise, and in this case, it means that Shaytan led Adam and Hawwa' away from it, as `Asim bin Abi An-Najud recited it. It is also possible that this Ayah refers to the forbidden tree. In this case, the Ayah would mean, as Al-Hasan and Qatadah stated, "He tripped them.'' In this case,
فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَـنُ عَنْهَا
(Then the Shaytan made them slip therefrom)
means, "Because of the tree'', just as Allah said,
يُؤْفَكُ عَنْهُ مَنْ أُفِكَ
(Turned aside therefrom (i.e. from Muhammad and the Qur'an) is he who is turned aside (by the decree and preordainment of Allah)) (51:9) meaning, the deviant person becomes turned aside - or slips - from the truth because of so and so reason. This is why then Allah said,
فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ
(And got them out from that in which they were) meaning, the clothes, spacious dwelling and comfortable sustenance.
(We said: "Get you down, all, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time.'') meaning, dwelling, sustenance and limited life, until the commencement of the Day of Resurrection
Adam was very Tall
Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ubayy bin Ka`b said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Allah created Adam tall, with thick hair, just as a date tree with full branches. When Adam ate from the forbidden tree, his cover fell off, and the first thing that appeared was his private area. When he saw his private area, he ran away in Paradise and his hair got caught in a tree. He tried to free himself and Ar-Rahman called him, 'O Adam! Are you running away from Me' When Adam heard the words of Ar-Rahman (Allah), he said, 'No, O my Lord! But I am shy.')
Adam remained in Paradise for an Hour
Al-Hakim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "Adam was allowed to reside in Paradise during the time period between the `Asr (Afternoon) prayer, until sunset.'' Al-Hakim then commented this is "Sahih according to the Two Shaykhs (Al-Bukhari and Muslim), but they did not include it in their collections.'' Also, Ibn Abi Hatim recorded Ibn `Abbas saying, "Allah sent Adam to earth to an area called, Dahna, between Makkah and At-Ta'if.'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that Adam was sent down to India, while Hawwa' was sent to Jeddah. Iblis was sent down to Dustumaysan, several miles from Basra. Further, the snake was sent down to Asbahan. This was reported by Ibn Abi Hatim. Also, Muslim and An-Nasa'i recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Friday is the best day on which the sun has risen. On Friday, Allah created Adam, admitted him into Paradise, and expelled him from it.)
A Doubt and a Rebuttal
If one asks, "If the Paradise that Adam was thrown out of was in heaven, as the majority of the scholars assert, then is it possible for Iblis to enter Paradise, although he was expelled from it by Allah's decision (when he refused to prostrate before Adam)''
Basically, the response to this would be that the Paradise which Adam was in, was in the heavens, not on the earth, as we explained in the beginning of our book Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah.
The majority of scholars said that Shaytan was originally prohibited from entering Paradise, but there were times when he sneaked into it in secret. For instance, the Tawrah stated that Iblis hid inside the snake's mouth and entered Paradise. Some scholars said that it is possible that Shaytan led Adam and Hawwa' astray on his way out of Paradise. Some scholars said that he led Adam and Hawwa' astray when he was on earth, while they were still in heaven, as stated by Az-Zamakhshari. Al-Qurtubi mentioned several beneficial Hadiths here about snakes and the ruling on killing them.
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
The tree has not been named or pointedd out specifically in the Quran because there was nothing intrinsically evil in the tree itself. It was merely chosen for the purpose of trial.
The Arabic word zalim is very comprehensive in its meaning. Zulm is "violation of a right or duty" and zalim is one who violates a right or duty. Anyone who disobeys Allah really violates three basic rights. First, he violates the rights of Allah Who is worthy of obedience. Second, he violates the rights of all those things and beings whom he employs in this disobedience, e.g., his own limbs and faculties, his fellow beings and those angels who contribute to the fulfilment of his will and all those things which he uses for the performance of the work of iniquity, for they have a right to be used only in accordance with the will of the real Master but it is an act of iniquity, if he abuses the powers he has over them. Lastly, he violates his own rights on himself, for his own self has a right that he should do his best to save it from destruction. He is also guilty of iniquity against himself when he brings the wrath of Allah on himself by his disobedience. That is why the Qur'an, in many places has used the term zulm for sin and zalim for the sinner.
That is, "Satan shall be the adversary of man and man the adversary of Satan". The fact, that Satan tries his utmost to beguile man from the path of Allah to the path of destruction, is a clear proof that he is the arch-enemy of man. On the other side, man's humanity demands that he should fight Satan as his enemy. But it is a pity that man is so beguiled by the temptations of Satan that he begins to take him as his friend. This, however, does not mean that their mutual enmity has really been changed into friendship. It only means that man has been beguiled by his opponent and caught in the snare which has been laid for him.
When Adam felt sorry for his guilt and wanted to repent and return to Allah, he could not find appropriate words for asking Allah's pardon. Then Allah took pity upon him on account of his grief and helplessness and taught him the appropriate words. The Arabic word "taubah" means both "to turn back" and "to turn to". When applied to man, it means that he has turned back from rebellion to submission, and, when it is ascribed to Allah, it means that He has again turned with compassion to the penitent person.
Here the Qur' an rejects the theory that the consequences of sin are inevitable and every man shall bear these anyhow. This is one of those selfinvented, nusleading theories which have done great harm to humanity. As a result of this, one loses for ever all hope of reform, when once one is involved in sin. Even if he feels sorry for a past sin and wants to make amends for it and changes his life for the better, this theory confronts him with despair: there is no hope for you because you are doomed for ever: you must bear the consequences of what you have done in the past. In contrast to this, the Qur'an says, "It lies absolutely fn Allah's power to reward a virtue or to punish a sin. If you are rewarded for a virtue, it is not on account of the natural result of your virtue, but it is through Allah's grace. He has full power to reward it or not. In the same way, if you are punished for a sin, it is not because of the inevitable consequences of the sin but because Allah has full power to punish or pardon it. Of course, being All-Wise, He does not use these powers indiscriminately, but takes into consideration the intention of the doer. If He rewards a virtue, He does so when He sees that His servant performed the good deeds to please Him. And if He rejects an apparent virtue, He does so because He knows that it lacked sincerity. In the same way, He punishes the crime which is committed in a spirit of rebellion and is not followed by self-reproach but by an evil desire to commit more crimes. He, however, exercises His grace, and forgives the sins for which His servant feels sorry and makes up his mind to change for the better. It is thus clear that the rejection of the theory of the inevitability of punishment for sin holds out new hopes of reform for sinners. Even the worst criminals and the staunchest unbelievers need not despair of forgiveness from Allah, provided that they confess their sins (of course, before their Lord and not before a priest), feel ashamed of their disobedience, give up their attitude of rebellion and adopt the attitude of submission instead.
Then Satan caused them to slip therefrom and brought them out of what they were in He caused them to slip azallahumā that is “he made them slip” ḥamalahumā ʿalā l-zalla. In actuality nothing gave them free agency except the divine power and nothing turned them about except the divine decree. He brought them out of what they were in publicly with respect to rank and degree but [secretly] their standing only increased in nobility and worth in the determination of the Real سبحانه. and We said “Go down some of you an enemy to the other” Although He sowed enmity between the two of them and Satan [God] سبحانه was with Adam and sided with him in the victory decreed for them. Satan has little weight to assert his enmity because the power of the Real سبحانه is unassailable. God most high said Truly over My servants you shall have no warrant [15:42]. If Satan were to have authority to seduce others he would have had the possibility of guiding himself. How can that beḍ The unique ability to create every thing is one of the characteristics that describe [God] سبحانه. and in the earth a dwelling shall be yours and enjoyment for a while. The place of assembly and familiarity for corporeal forms ashkāl are the regions of the earth. The place of acquaintance and pasture for the spirits arwāḥ is beyond the throne. The expression “beyond” warāÌ though is a metaphor or hyperbole here. How could aspirations have any connection to eventsḍ How could the ascent of intentions toward realities share a location with anything elseḍ