The Quran

Commentaries for 2.3

Al Baqara (The cow) - البقرة

2.3 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(Who believe in the unseen), that which is hidden from them such as Paradise, hell, the Bridge over hell, the Scale, the Resurrection, the Reckoning, etc. It is also said that this means: that they believe in the unseen which is revealed in the Qur'an and also in that which is not revealed therein. It is also said that the unseen is Allah Himself. (And establish worship), they perform to completion the five prescribed prayers, including the ablution that precedes them, the bowing and prostrations which are parts of them and also what is obligated in these prayers in terms of appointed timing. (And spend of that We have bestowed upon them), and of that which We have given them of wealth they give to charity. It is also said that this means: they give the poor-due (Zakat) from their wealth. The reference here is to Abu Bakr and his companions.
2.3 Asrar - Kashf Al-Asrar
Those who have faith in the Unseen and perform the prayer and spend of what We have provided them.
They love God without having seen Him. They attest to His uniqueness and they believe in His oneness in Essence and attributes. They hold firm to His Messenger without having seen him, they accept his messengerhood, and they walk straight on the road of his Sunnah. After five hundred years of blackness on whiteness, they accept him with spirit and heart. The message he conveyed, the reports he gave of the World of Dominion, the Lote Tree of the Final End, the Gardens of the Refuge, the Throne of the Patron, the outcome of this world-they bear witness to its truth and
they believe in all of it. They are the ones whom MuṣṬafā called his brothers: “Oh, the yearning to encounter my brothers!”
And perform the prayer. They do the prayer such that you would say they are gazing on God and whispering secretly with Him, confirming the truth of the Prophet's words, “Worship God as if you see Him, for if you do not see Him, surely He sees you.” He also said, “When the servant stands for the prayer, he is before the eyes of the All-Merciful. When he looks around, God says, 'Child of Adam! At whom are you looking? Are you looking at someone better for you than I? Child of Adam! Look at Me, for I am better for you than the one at whom you are looking.'”
Strive at the time you come to the prayer to keep your thoughts in the prayer and to turn your heart away from the bazaar. Have courtesy, turn your heart away from blessings, and know the worth of whispering secretly with the Patron of Blessings. For it is person of low aspiration and meanness who finds secret whispering with the Patron of Blessings and then busies his heart with the blessings.
And spend of what We have provided them. He adds to the attributes of the godwary, saying that the caresses He has placed upon them and the blessings He has given them-they undertake to show gratitude for these blessings and, by the command of the Shariah, they caress the poor, give comfort to them, and consider them the Real's deputies in receiving charity.
This indeed is the road of Muslims generally, who discharge the obligatory or add something to it voluntarily.
As for the road of the folk of the Haqiqah in this regard, it is something else. Whatever they have they give away and still consider themselves to have fallen short. Someone asked Shiblī, “Of two hundred dirhams, how much alms tax is mandatory?”
He said, “Are you asking about yours or mine?”
He said, “I did not know that my alms tax is one thing and yours something else. Explain that to me.”
He said, “If you give it, five dirhams is mandatory. If I give it, the whole two hundred, with five more as a token of gratitude.”
It is mandatory for the common people of the community to discharge the obligatory act of alms tax. The outcome of their work is that they say, “Lord God, are You approving and satisfied with what we have given?” The fruit of the deed of the elect, who give away all their possessions, is that God says, “My servant, are you approving and satisfied with Me in what you have done?” How far apart are the two!
The description of the state of Abū Bakr gives witness that this is so. After he had given away all of his possessions, he came one day into the Prophet's presence draped in a white blanket with a pin of date-palm sticking out from the front of the blanket. Gabriel descended and said, “O MuḤammad, God sends you His greeting and says, 'What is it with Abū Bakr that his cloak is pierced by a pin?”
He said, “O Gabriel, he spent his possessions before the conquest.”
He said, “God says, 'Give him My greetings and ask him if he approves of Me in this poverty of his, or is he angry?'”
He said, “What, should I be angry with my Lord? I approve of my Lord.”
It has been said that the servant stands upright and straight in his states through three things: heart, body, and possessions. As long as he does not have faith in the Unseen, his heart will not go straight in the religion and neither clarity nor familiarity will appear in him. As long as he does not discharge the obligatory prayers, the soundness and straightness of his body will not be set right with continuity. As long as he does not separate the alms tax from his possessions, these possessions will not settle down with him.
2.3 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
who believe in, that is, who accept the truth of, the Unseen, what is hidden from them of the Resurrection, Paradise and the Fire; and maintain the prayer, that is to say, who perform it giving it its proper due; and of what We have provided them, that is, of what we have bestowed upon them, expend, in obedience to God;
2.3 Kashani - Kashani
[those] who believe in the Unseen, and maintain the prayer: that is, [they believe] in what is absent to them in terms of the faith of following authority (taqlīdī), or that [faith] of the verification of knowledge. For faith is in two parts, that of following authority and that of verification. That of verification is [itself] divided into two, [verification] by reasoning (istidlāl) or by unveiling (kashfī), both of which [are] either [of the type that] stand at the limit of knowledge and of the unseen, or [of the type that] do not stand there. The former is to know [something] for certain, what is called the knowledge of certainty (ʿilm al-yaqīn); the second is either of the eye, namely, the witnessing (mushāhada) called the eye of certainty (ʿayn al-yaqīn), or of the reality, namely, the vision of self-disclosure, called the reality of certainty (ḥaqq al-yaqīn). The last two types do not belong to [the category of] belief in the Unseen. For belief in the Unseen requires works of the heart, namely, [self-]purification (tazkiya), which is the purification of the heart against becoming inclined to the exterior bodily fortunes that distract [one] from attaining abiding happiness. For happiness is of three kinds: that of the heart, that of the body and that which surrounds it. That [happiness] of the heart consists of gnostic sciences (maʿārif) and wisdoms, perfections of knowledge and practical perfections of character. As for [the happiness of] the body, this consists of physical well-being and strength, corporeal pleasures and natural passions. As for that [happiness] which surrounds [the body], this consists of wealth and means, just as the commander of the believers [ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib], peace be upon him: 'Verily, ample wealth is a grace, but more excellent than ample wealth is the well-being of the body and a God-mindful heart'. It is necessary to guard against [concerning oneself with] these former two in order to obtain this desired last by means of renunciation and worship. For to perform prayers is to abandon the comforts of the body and to tire the physical limbs, [prayer] being the mother of all [acts of] worship which when it is forthcoming the remainder follow, truly prayer prohibits lewd acts and indecency [Q. 45:29], since it is a burden and a great hardship upon both body and soul; while to expend of [one's] wealth [in charity] is to turn away from outward happiness beloved to the soul, what is called renunciation (zuhd).
Indeed, [such] expenditure may be harder upon it than the expending of one's spirit because of the hold that niggardliness exercises upon it. He [God] is not content with the [minimum] obligatory amount [of charity] and thus says:
and of what We have provided them expend, so that the heart might become accustomed to forsaking any excess wealth through [acts of] generosity and munificence and the expending of wealth in voluntary ways by means of virtuous acts, gifts and charity, saving himself thereby from the avarice of his own soul [cf. Q. 59:9]. [Here] 'expending' is specifically qualified as [required] 'partially' through the partitive [particle] min ('of') lest that person should fall into the vice of squandering by expending the [entire] necessary amount and be deprived of the merit of [acts of] generosity which is one of the ways of assuming the character traits of God;
2.3 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
The Meaning of Iman
Abu Ja`far Ar-Razi said that Al-`Ala' bin Al-Musayyib bin Rafi` narrated from Abu Ishaq that Abu Al-Ahwas said that `Abdullah said, "Iman is to trust.''. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said,
(who have faith) means they trust. Also, Ma`mar said that Az-Zuhri said, "Iman is the deeds.'' In addition, Abu Ja`far Ar-Razi said that Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that, `They have faith', means, they fear (Allah).
Ibn Jarir (At-Tabari) commented, "The prefered view is that they be described as having faith in the Unseen by the tongue, deed and creed. In this case, fear of Allah is included in the general meaning of Iman, which necessitates following deeds of the tongue by implementation. Hence, Iman is a general term that includes affirming and believing in Allah, His Books and His Messengers, and realizing this affirmation through adhering to the implications of what the tongue utters and affirms.''
Linguistically, in the absolute sense, Iman merely means trust, and it is used to mean that sometimes in the Qur'an, for instance, Allah the Exalted said,
يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَيُؤْمِنُ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ
(He trusts (yu'minu) in Allah, and trusts (yu'minu) in the believers.) (9: 61)
Prophet Yusuf's brothers said to their father,
وَمَآ أَنتَ بِمُؤْمِنٍ لَّنَا وَلَوْ كُنَّا صَٰـدِقِينَ
(But you will never believe us even when we speak the truth) (12:17).
Further, the word Iman is sometimes mentioned along with deeds, such as Allah said,
إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّٰـلِحَـتِ
(Save those who believe (in Islamic Monotheism) and do righteous deeds) (95:6).
However, when Iman is used in an unrestricted manner, it includes beliefs, deeds, and statements of the tongue.We should state here that Iman increases and decreases.
There are many narrations and Hadiths on this subject, and we discussed them in the beginning of our explanation of Sahih Al-Bukhari, all favors are from Allah. Some scholars explained that Iman means Khashyah (fear of Allah). For instance, Allah said;
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُم بِالْغَيْبِ
(Verily, those who fear their Lord unseen (i.e. they do not see Him, nor His punishment in the Hereafter)) (67:12), and,
مَّنْ خَشِىَ الرَّحْمَٰـنَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَجَآءَ بِقَلْبٍ مُّنِيبٍ
(Who feared the Most Gracious (Allah) in the Ghayb (unseen) and brought a heart turned in repentance (to Him and absolutely free from every kind of polytheism)) (50: 33).
Fear is the core of Iman and knowledge, just as Allah the Exalted said,
إِنَّمَا يَخْشَى اللَّهَ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ الْعُلَمَاءُ
(It is only those who have knowledge among His servants that fear Allah) (35:28).
The Meaning of Al-Ghayb
As for the meaning of Ghayb here, the Salaf have different explanations of it, all of which are correct, indicating the same general meaning. For instance, Abu Ja`far Ar-Razi quoted Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, reporting from Abu Al-`Aliyah about Allah's statement, i
يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ
((Those who) have faith in the Ghayb), "They believe in Allah, His angels, Books, Messengers, the Last Day, His Paradise, Fire and in the meeting with Him. They also believe in life after death and in Resurrection. All of this is the Ghayb.'' Qatadah bin Di`amah said similarly.
Sa`id bin Mansur reported from `Abdur-Rahman bin Yazid who said, "We were sitting with `Abdullah bin Mas`ud when we mentioned the Companions of the Prophet and their deeds being superior to our deeds. `Abdullah said, `The matter of Muhammad was clear for those who saw him. By He other than Whom there is no God, no person will ever acquire a better type of faith than believing in Al-Ghayb.' He then recited,
الم - ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ
(Alif Lam Mim. This is the Book, wherein there is no doubt, a guidance for the Muttaqin. Those who believe in the Ghayb), until,
(the successful). '' Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn Marduwyah and Al-Hakim, in his Mustadrak, recorded this Hadith. Al-Hakim commented that this Hadith is authentic and that the Two Shaykhs - Al-Bukhari and Muslim - did not collect it, although it meets their criteria.
Ahmad recorded a Hadith with similar meaning from Ibn Muhayriz who said: I said to Abu Jumu`ah, "Narrate a Hadith for us that you heard from the Messenger of Allah.'' He said, "Yes. I will narrate a good Hadith for you. Once we had lunch with the Messenger of Allah. Abu `Ubaydah, who was with us, said, `O Messenger of Allah! Are people better than us We embraced Islam with you and performed Jihad with you.' He said,
«نَعَمْ قَوْمٌ مِنْ بَعْدِكُمْ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِي وَلَمْ يَرَوْنِي»
(Yes, those who will come after you, who will believe in me although they did not see me.)''
This Hadith has another route collected by Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah in his Tafsir, from Salih bin Jubayr who said: `Abu Jumu`ah Al-Ansari, the Companion of the Messenger of Allah, came to Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem) to perform the prayer. Raja' bin Haywah was with us, so when Abu Jumu`ah finished, we went out to greet him. When he was about to leave, he said, "You have a gift and a right. I will narrate a Hadith for you that I heard from the Messenger of Allah. '' We said, "Do so, and may Allah grant you mercy.'' He said, "We were with the Messenger of Allah, ten people including Mu`adh bin Jabal. We said, "O Messenger of Allah! Are there people who will acquire greater rewards than us We believed in Allah and followed you.' He said,
«مَا يَمْنَعُكُمْ مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَرَسُولُ اللهِ بَيْنَ أَظْهُرِكُمْ يَأْتِيكُمْ بِالْوَحْيِ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ، بَلْ قَوْمٌ بَعْدَكُمْ يَأْتِيهِمْ كِتَابٌ مِنْ بَيْنِ لَوْحَيْنِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ وَيَعْمَلُونَ بِمَا فِيهِ، أُولٰئِكَ أَعْظَمُ مِنْكُمْ أَجْرًا مَرَّتَيْن»
(What prevents you from doing so, while the Messenger of Allah is among you, bringing you the revelation from heaven There are people who will come after you and who will be given a book between two covers (the Qur'an), and they will believe in it and implement its commands. They have a greater reward than you, even twice as much.)''
وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلٰوةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَـهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ
(And perform Salah, and spend out of what we have provided for them)
Meaning of Iqamat As-Salah
Ibn `Abbas said that,
وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلٰوةَ
(And perform the Salah), means, "Perform the prayer with all of the obligations that accompany it.'' Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said, "Iqamat As-Salah means to complete the bowings, prostrations, recitation, humbleness and attendance for the prayer.'' Qatadah said, "Iqamat As-Salah means to preserve punctuality, and the ablution, bowings, and prostrations of the prayer.'' Muqatil bin Hayyan said Iqamat As-Salah means "To preserve punctuality for it, as well as completing ones purity for it, and completing the bowings, prostrations, recitation of the Qur'an, Tashahhud and blessings for the Prophet. This is Iqamat As-Salah.''
The Meaning of "Spending'' in this Ayah
`Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said,
وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَٰـهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ
(And spend out of what We have provided for them) means, "The Zakah due on their wealth.'' As-Suddi said that Abu Malik and Abu Salih narrated from Ibn `Abbas, as well as Murrah from Ibn Mas`ud and other Companions of the Messenger of Allah, that,
وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَٰـهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ
(And spend out of what We have provided for them) means, "A man's spending on his family. This was before the obligation of Zakah was revealed.'' Juwaybir narrated from Ad-Dahhak, "General spending (in charity) was a means of drawing nearer to Allah, according to one's discretion and capability. Until the obligation of charity was revealed in the seven Ayat of Surat Bara'ah (chapter 9), were revealed. These abrogated the previous case.''
In many instances, Allah mentioned prayer and spending wealth together. Prayer is a right of Allah as well as a form of worshipping Him. It includes singling Him out for one's devotion, praising Him, glorifying Him, supplicating to Him, invoking Him, and it displays one's dependence upon Him. Spending is form of kindness towards creatures by giving them what will benefit them, and those people most deserving of this charity are the relatives, the wife, the servants and then the rest of the people. So all types of required charity and required spending are included in Allah's saying,
وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَٰـهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ
(And spend out of what we have provided for them). The Two Sahihs recorded that Ibn `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«بُنِيَ الْإِسْلَامُ عَلَى خَمْسٍ: شَهَادَةِ أَنْ لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللهِ، وَإِقَامِ الصَّلَاةِ، وَإِيتَاءِ الزَّكَاةِ، وَصَوْمِ رَمَضَانَ، وَحَجِّ الْبَيْت»
(Islam is built upon five (pillars): Testifying that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establishing the prayer, giving Zakah, fasting Ramadan and Hajj to the House.)
There are many other Hadiths on this subject.
The Meaning of Salah
In the Arabic language, the basic meaing of Salah is supplication. In religious terminology, Salah is used to refer to the acts of bowing and prostration, the remaining specified acts associated with it, specificed at certain times, with those known conditions, and the characteristics, and requirements that are well-known about it.
2.1-4 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Letters of the Arabic alphabet like Alif, Lam, Mim, called the mugatta'at, which are pre-fixed to a number of the Surahs of the Qur'an, were in common use in the Arabic literature of the period when the Qur'an was. revealed. The poets and rhetoricians made use of this style, and instances of this can even be found in the pre-Islamic prose and poetry which has survived. As their significance was appreciated by all concerned, none objected to or questioned their use, because it was no enigma to them. Even the bitterest opponents of the Qur'an, who never missed an opportunity, did not raise any objection against their use. But as their use was abandoned with the passage of time" it became difficult for the commentators to determine their exact meaning and significance. An ordinary reader, however, need not worry about their meanings because they make no difference as tar as the Guidance of the Qur'an is concerned.
Its simple meaning is: "No doubt, this is the Book of Allah", but it may also imply that this is the Book which contains nothing doubtful. It is not like the common books on metaphysics and religion which are based on mere speculation and guess-work. Therefore even their authors cannot be free from doubts concerning their own theories, in spite of their assertion that they are convinced of them. In contrast to them, this Book is based on the Truth: its Author is He Who possesses full knowledge of the Reality. Therefore, there is indeed no room for doubt about its contents.
That is, though there is nothing but guidance in this Book, there are a few pre-requisites for benefiting from it. The first pre-requisite is that one should be inclined to avoid vice, and should seek and practise virtue. But there is no guidance in the Qur'an for the people who do not bother to consider whether what they are doing is right or wrong, who follow the ways of the world or their own whims and lusts or move aimlessly in the ways of life.
The second condition for obtaining guidance from the Qur'an is that one must believe in the "unseen" -- those realities which cannot be perceived by the senses and which do not come within human experience and observation, e.g. the essence and attributes of Allah, Angels, Revelation, Heaven, Hell, etc. These things must be taken on trust from the experts (Prophets) just as we do in many cases in the physical world. Therefore, only such a person, who believes in the "unseen", can benefit from the Guidance of the Qur'an. As for the one who believes only in those things which can be seen, tasted and smelt, or can be measured and weighed, cannot get any guidance from this Book.
The third condition to benefit from the Qur'an is that one should be willing and ready to put into practice the teachings of the Qur'an. As the Salat ( Prayer) is the first and foremost obligatory duty enjoined by the Qur'an, it is the practical proof and permanent test of the sincerity of one's Faith. Therefore, after a person's profession of Islam, the moment he hears the call to the Prayer (which sounds regularly five times a day from every mosque in the Muslim world), he should join the congregation for the Salat, because this determines whether he is sincere in his profession or not. If he does not attend to the call and join the congregation, it is an indication that he is not sincere in his profession. It must also be noted that "iqama-tus-Salat¦(the establishment of Prayer is the comprehensive term. It means that Salat should be performed in congregation and that permanent arrangements should be made for it in every habitation; otherwise Salat will not be considered to have been established, even if every inhabitant of a place offers the Salat individually.
The fourth condition to benefit from the Qur' an is that one should be willing to part with one's money according to the instructions of the Book in order to render the rights of Allah and Man and should make monetary sacrifices for the cause of Islam which he has accepted.
The fifth condition is that one should believe in the truth of all those Books which Allah sent down by Revelation to the Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be His peace and blessings) and the Prophets before him at different times in different countries. Those who do not believe in any kind of guidance from Allah, cannot at all benefit from the guidance of the Qur'an. Likewise those who profess to believe in the necessity of guidance from Allah but do not turn to Revelation and the Prophets for it, or who dub their' own theories as "divine light", cannot obtain any guidance from it. Moreover, guidance is also denied to those who believe only in that revealed Book or Books in which their forefathers believed and reject all other guidance received from the same Source. Apart from all such people, the Qur'an guides only those who believe that they stand in need of Divine Guidance as well as admit that it does not come to every man individually but reaches humanity only through the Prophets and revealed Books.Then those who want guidance should not be slaves to any racial or national prejudices but should be seekers after truth and should submit to it wherever and in whatever form they find it.
This is the sixth and last condition. "Hereafter" is a comprehensive word which applies to the collection of many beliefs, which are as follows: (a) Man has not been created irresponsible in the world but he is answerable to Allah for all his deeds here. (b) The present world order is not everlasting, but has to come to an end at a time only known to Allah. (c) After the present order has been brought to an end, Allah will create a new world, when He will bring back to life all human beings, born from the beginning of creation till Resurrection, simultaneously and will call them to account for their deeds, and then will reward them justly accordingly to what they had done in the world. (d) Those, who will be judged as good by Allah, will go to Paradise, and those who will be judged as bad will be cast into Hell. (e) The criterion of success or failure is not the prosperity or adversity of this worldly life, but successful in actual fact will be he who comes out successful in Allah's final judgement, and failure he who is a failure there. Those who do not believe in the life-after-death with the above implications, cannot benefit from the Qur'an because the one who entertains' even the slightest doubt about these; not to speak of rejecting them, can never follow the way of life which the Qur'an prescribes.
2.3 Qushairi - Al-Qushairi
Who believe in the unseen and maintain the prayer The true meaning of belief īmān is affirmation taṣdīq and then actualization taḥqīq both of which are brought about by God's granting of success tawfīq. The affirmation is in the pledge ʿaqd and actualization is through the exertion of effort jahd in preserving the pact ʿahd and observing the limit ḥadd. The believers are those who affirm ṣaddaqū their commitment iʿtiqād and then are sincere ṣadaqū in their effort ijtihād. As for the unseen what the servant knows of it is limited to what is necessary. The servant understands each religious matter by a kind of reasoning istidlāl a mode of mental examination fikr and calling forth of evidence istishhād. So the belief is invisible ghaybī within it. The Lord سبحانه وتعالى is unseen ghayb and what the Real speaks about with regard to the gathering and the resurrection the reward and the place of return and the reckoning and punishment is unseen. It is said that only someone who has the lamp of the unseen with him believes. Those who are supported by the demonstrative proof of intellects burhān al-ʿuqūl believe through the corroboration of knowledge dalālat al-ʿilm and what points to certainty ishārat al-yaqīn. The veracity of reasoning ṣidqu al-istidlāl brings them to the courtyards of seeking insight istibṣār and what is correct in the evidence they call forth istishhād carries them to the elevated observation points of stillness. Their faith in the unseen comes through the types of knowledge ʿulūm they possess crowding out the causes of doubt. [Others] receive deeper instruction taʿrīf through curtains of lights He has lowered down over them. Through the glimmers of clear evidence bayān He has freed them from the need for any reflection fikr and vision ruÌya any seeking of pure intuitions khawāṬir zakiyya or rejection of ignoble urgings dawāʿin radiyya. The suns of their innermost selves rise and they no longer have any need for the lamps of their reasoning istidlāl. Regarding this they have recited: From your face my night has become the sun of the bright morning. The darkness in the air is elsewhere. People are in the twilight of darkness. While we from your face are in the bright morning light. They also recite: The sun of the one who loves you has appeared at night.
[The night] is illuminated since she does not set. The sun of day sets at night while the sun of hearts never disappears. Anyone who believes in the unseen through witnessing the unseen ghayb becomes absent ghāba in witnessing it. He becomes an absent one who is himself unseen fa-ṣāra ghayban yaghīb. As for maintaining prayer it is maintaining its pillars and practices and then absenting oneself ghayba from witnessing them looking instead to the One to whom prayer is offered. Thus one will preserve the precepts of the command for Him in what is performed for Him from Him effaced from regarding [the act of prayer]. Souls such as this face the qibla with their hearts immersed in the realities of the communion [of lovers]: I see myself when praying turning my face toward her even though the direction of prayer is the other way. I pray but don't know whether I have completed the two [rakats] of the morning prayer or eight. Ordinary people strive when beginning to pray to direct their hearts back to the awareness of what they are performing as an obligation yet they do not turn back from the torrents of forgetfulness. The elect on the other hand direct their hearts back to the awareness of what they are performing yet they do not turn back from the realities of the communion [of lovers]. What a difference between one who attends to the precepts of the law but is absent in the familiar territories of his forgetfulness and the one who turns back to the precepts of the law but is absent in the realities of communion. and of what We have provided them expend “Provision” rizq is that from which mankind derives benefit. The tafsīr tradition says that they expend their wealth either through supererogatory acts or obligatory acts according to the details of [juridical] knowledge. However the allusion [in the verse] explains that they do not hold back anything from God سبحانه وتعالى of that which has been made easy for them. They expend their lower selves in the refined manners of servanthood ādāb al-ʿubūdiyya and they expend their hearts in the perpetual witnessing of lordship mushāhadat al-rubūbiyya. The followers of the law sharīʿa expend with respect to wealth amwāl and the masters of reality ḥaqīqa expend with respect to states aḥwāl. [The followers of the sharīʿa] are those for whom the 2.5% [alms] is sufficient with one's entire wealth taken into account [in determining] the minimum amount according to the practices of the sunna. As for the people of realities if they grant even a moment of the entirety of their states to themselves and their own worldly fortunes the resurrection looms before them. The ascetics zāhidūn expend the pursuit of their own whim or passion hawā on the path for they prefer the good pleasure of God over their own desires. The worshipers ʿābidūn expend their ability and power in the way of God constantly clinging to their fear of God taqwā privately and publicly. The aspirants murīdūn expend in His way what distracts them from remembering their Protector mawlā so they do not pay any attention to anything in their present world or their world to come. Those with deeper knowledge ʿārifūn expend in the way of God everything other than their Protector mawlā so the Real سبحانه draws them near and gives them refuge and by virtue of being alone with Him He suffices for them. The rich expend from their blessings for the sake of what is to come while the poor fuqarāÌ expend from their aspirations for the sake of turning [to God]. It is said that [the instruments of] the servant are his heart his body and his possessions. Thus by their faith in the unseen they [serve] through their hearts by their praying they [serve] through their lower selves and by their expenditure they [serve] through their possessions so that they become worthy of the special favors khaṣāÌiṣ of drawing near to that which they serve and worship. When they exist entirely through His Truth they become deserving of the perfection of intimate friendship khuṣūṣiyya.
2.3 Tustari - Al-Tustari
The [ones who are] mindful of God are those who believe in the unseen…God is the unseen and His religion is the unseen, and God, Mighty and Majestic is He, has ordered them to believe in the unseen, to free themselves from [any claim] to power and strength concerning that which they have been commanded to do and prohibited from doing, in faith, speech and action and to say, ‘We have no power (ḥawl) to keep ourselves from disobediencesave through Your protection (ʿiṣma), and we have no strength (quwwa) to obey You save through Your aid (maʿūna).’ This is [a result of] of His compassion (ishfāq) towards them, and of His assisting them so that they do not claim power, strength and ability as did those who were damned from pre-eternity. When [these latter] saw the punishment with their own eyes, they disowned [their claim], but their disavowal did not avail them after they had actually seen the punishment. God has informed us about those who fit this description in His words But their faith was of no benefit to them when they (actually) saw Our punishment [40:85], and: Their only plea when Our might came upon them, was to say, ‘We were evildoers indeed’ [7:5]. Similarly, Pharaoh claimed to have power, strength and ability, and said, ‘Whenever I wish to believe, I will believe’, but when he actually came to believe it was not accepted from him, as God, Exalted is He, said, Now — when hitherto you have disobeyed and been of those who do corruption? [10:91]
…And spend out of what We have provided them:Sahl said:Truly God, Exalted is He, has described in this way those whom He has moulded with a certain nature, who are connected to Him by a certain link, and who never lapse in their heedfulness (murāqaba) of Him. They are those who never made a choice and desired nothing other than Him. Their only choice is that He should choose for them, even as He has chosen them for Himself. They desire nothing that has any relation to another which will remove them from their dependence solely on Him, for they have freed themselves from other than Him.Abū Bakr relates that it was said to Sahl: ‘Truly God has granted you wisdom (ḥikma)’, to which he replied:Indeed, God willing, I have been granted wisdom (ḥikma) and [a knowledge of] the unseen (ghayb) which I was taught from the unseen of His secret (min ghayb sirrihi), and thus He sufficed me from the need for all other knowledge — and that the ultimate end is toward your Lord [53:42], and He completed what He had begun with me out of His grace and beneficence.His words, Mighty and Majestic is He: