The Quran

Commentaries for 2.255

Al Baqara (The cow) - البقرة

2.255 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
Allah then praises Himself, saying: (Allah! There is no God save Him, the Alive) Who dies not, (the Eternal) the Self-existent Who has no beginning. (Neither slumber nor) deep (sleep overtaketh Him) such that He is distracted from running and commanding it. (Unto Him belongeth whatever is in the heavens) of angels (and whatever is in the earth) of created beings. (Who is he that intercedeth with Him) from amongst the dwellers of the heavens and the earth on the Day of Judgement (save by His leave?) except by His command? (He knoweth that which is in front of them) in front of the angels regarding the matter of the Hereafter and who is to intercede (and that which is behind them) of the life of this world, (while they encompass nothing of His knowledge save that He will). Allah says: the angels know nothing of the Hereafter or of the life of this world save that which Allah has taught them. (His throne includeth the heaven and the earth) He says that His Chair extends far beyond the heavens and the earth, (and He is never weary of preserving them) it is not burdensome for Him to preserve the Throne and Chair without the angels. (He is the Sublime) more sublime than anything, (the Tremendous) more tremendous than anything.
2.255 Asrar - Kashf Al-Asrar
God, there is no god but He, the Living, the Self-Standing. Slumber takes Him not, nor sleep. To Him belong whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who will intercede with Him save by His leave? He knows what is before them and what is behind them, and they encompass nothing of His knowledge save as He wills. His Footstool embraces the heavens and the earth, and He is the High, the Tremendous.
God is He who has divinity and lordhood, God is He who has unity and self-sufficiency. His fixity is unitary, His being self-sufficient, His subsistence beginningless, and His brilliance eternal.
God is the name of a lord whose essence is everlasting and whose attributes are eternal. His subsistence is beginningless and His splendor endless. His beauty is self-standing and His majesty constant. He is magnanimous and renowned, great in measure and deed, great in name and word, beyond intelligence and before when, and greater than any measure.
O majestic God who is the Enactor and the good sweetheart, the creator of the world and the guardian of the creatures, keeper of enemies and companion of friends, the hard cash of hopes and enough for assurances, the receiver of every plaintiff and the forgiver of every offense, the kiblah of the desirer and the remembrance of the recognizer's heart!
In remembrance of You I pass my days without You, in my eyes a picture of Your form.
God is the remembrance of the hearts of the friends, God is the witness of the heart of the recognizers, God is the joy of the secret core of the distracted, God is the healing of the hearts of the ill, God is the lamp of the breast of the tawḤīd-voicers, God is the light of the heart of the familiars and the balm of the pain of the burnt.
Passion for You in my heart is like the light of certainty, Your name upon my eyes like the seal on a ring.
In my nature and aspiration until the day of resurrection
love for You will be like the spirit and loyalty to You like religion.
The Pir of the Tariqah Junayd said, " If someone says God with his tongue when other than God is in his heart, God will be his adversary in the two abodes.
" If someone remembers God with his tongue and delights in His name and then busies his heart with love for another, then-by the majesty and exaltedness of the Lord God-tomorrow the whip of rebuke will reach him in the station of harshness, and his adversary will be God.
On the night of the miʿrāj He said to the master, " 'O MuḤammad! I wonder how anyone with faith in Me can depend on other than Me. O MuḤammad! Were they to gaze on the subtleties of My kindness and the wonders of My artisanry, they would not worship other than Me': What a wonder is someone who finds Me and then seeks for someone else! How can He who recognizes Me busy himself with other than Me? "
When an eye sees You, it is relieved of pain.
When a spirit finds You, it is exempt from death.
The Pir of the Tariqah said, " O God, O worthy of generosity and caresser of the world! There is no
sorrow along with Your union and no grief along with Your remembrance. You are the plaintiff and the interceder, the witness and the judge. As long as I breathe along with Your love, I will be free of the bonds of existence and nonexistence, released from the bother of Tablet and Pen-cups of happiness placed in hand again and again in the session of intimacy! "
There is no god but He, a God other than whom there is no worthy object of worship. In the two worlds who else is worthy of Lordhood? There is none to take the hand of the wounded other than the signet of His beauty and gentleness. There is no caresser of the orphans other than the edict of His generosity. He is the Lord God to whose loyalty are bound the hearts of the friends, for whose encounter are wishing the spirits of the yearners, and from the cups of whose trial the spirits of the passionate are drunk in love. The ease of the wounded comes from His name and mark, the joy of the recognizers from His remembrance and message. How beautifully spoke that distracted one of the times:
" When will my luck smile at me from Your playing field?
When will separation from You strike its tent from my spirit's desert?
My ease is Your message, my foot in Your snare,
Your prison my spirit's garden because of Your name.
The Living, the Self-Standing: a Lord who is alive, lasting, holding, caressing, bestowing, concealing. He knows all that is and all that will be. He reaches everything with His ability and grasp. He is the Lord of everyone and takes forward everything that comes to be. He links His familiars with love through the light of His name and the light of His message. He is the repose and ease [56:89] of hearts and the relaxation of the secret cores. Applause for those chevaliers who have caught a whiff of this talk and come to the table of gentleness! Just as others live through food and drink, they live through the name and mark of the Friend and are at ease in His remembrance.
They said to Shiblī, " Where do food and drink come from? "
He said, " The remembrance of my Lord is the food of my soul, the laudation of my Lord is the clothing of my soul, and shame before my Lord is the drink of my soul. My soul has been sacrificed to my heart, my heart to my spirit, and my spirit to my Lord. "
May the light of my eyes be the dust beneath Your feet!
May my spirit be sacrificed to aching for You!
Slumber takes Him not, nor sleep. This is a declaration of the holiness and incomparability of the Essence, for He is free of defects and hallowed beyond blights. Sleep is a change of state, and God is pure of the changing and turning of states. He is far from decrease and increase. Sleep is a fault, and God is rid of faults. Sleep is heedlessness, and God transcends blights and heedless moments. Sleep is the changing of state, and God's state does not change or accept alteration. Sleep is similar to death, and God is the living, the lasting, the subsistent.
Powerful, Knowing, Alive, Desiring, Hearing, Seeing, clothed in majesty,
Hallowed beyond having an equal, transcending opinion and talk.
He is a Lord who has no associate in Essence, no similar in attributes, and no equal in measure.
Thought is bewildered in Your subtle Essence,
all hidden things apparent to Your eternal knowledge. In the ocean of Your perfection, the perfect are defective,
in the eye of Your acceptance, the defective become perfect.
To Him belong whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. The engendered beings and newly arrived things in the earth and the heavens are all His artisanry and His kingdom. No one quarrels with Him, no other overpowers Him. What dominates over them is His command, what influences them is His knowledge. They have ability from His assistance, they are kept by His pres-
ervation. It is narrated from Ibn ʿAbbās that he said, " The earths are upon the Bull, the Bull is in a chain, the chain is in the ear of the Fish, and the Fish is in the hand of the All-Merciful. "
Who will intercede with Him save by His leave? Who fancies that he can take care of his own business without His wanting it or can take a breath without His knowledge or can reach Him without Him? His opinion is wrong and his effort misguided.
The Pir of the Tariqah said, " O God, when the approved sought You by You they reached You. When the unapproved sought You by themselves they broke off. Those who reached did not arrive because of gratitude, nor did those who broke off arrive with excuses. O You who Yourself made them arrive and who make them arrive at Yourself! Make me arrive, for none has arrived by himself. "
O You the guide on whose road is pain!
You are solitary and Your familiar solitary.
He knows what is before them and what is behind them. All that is someone or something in heaven and earth, the Creator knows its movement and rest, its thoughts and ideas. He sees its going and moving and He reaches its reality, for everything comes forth from His power and changes by His decree. He knows it, for He makes it happen. He sees it, for He does it. He binds it, for He loosens it. He is worthy of Godhood, for He is not held back, never at a loss, and does not fall short. He knows the hidden things, and the work does not distract Him. He attends to everything and takes care of all work. But when He throws something to the Adamites, they put their intelligence into His work, they bind their imaginations to Him, but their knowledge and intellect are lost in His measure.
They encompass nothing of His knowledge save as He wills.
His Footstool embraces the heavens and the earth. This is the text of the Qur'an, alluding to direction and location. The Footstool is not " knowledge, " for that is the road of the roadless and the interpretation of the ignorant. We know the Footstool as the place of the feet, and this is the position of the Sunnis, who take it to heart and accept it without interpretation and self-determination. Then He seals the verse by mentioning His majesty, greatness, tremendousness, and aboveness. He says, " And He is the High, the Tremendous. " Concerning the glorification of the angels, this is narrated from the Prophet: " The high heavens glorify Him who possesses awesomeness and
highness: 'Glory be to the High, the Highest! Glory be to Him, and high exalted is He!' "
God's highness and aboveness are of two sorts: one is the highness and aboveness of attributes, the other the highness and aboveness of acts. That pertaining to attributes is beginningless: He has never ceased being naked and high and He has always been and always will be. He is beyond all things through His own magnificence, above all marks through His own measure, above all measures through His exaltedness.
That pertaining to acts is the aboveness of the Essence and the highness of location. He Himself acts and gives marks of Himself after the creation of heaven and earth and by His own desire and not out of need, for the work that God does is by want, not need, since He has no requirement or need for anyone or anything, and He has no associate or partner. O Lord, protect our hearts from innovation and misguidance and release them from confusion and bewilderment, by Thy favor and bounty!
2.255 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
God, there is no god, that is, there is none worthy of being worshipped in [all] existence, except Him, the Living, the Everlasting, the Eternal Sustainer, the One constantly engaged in the management of His creation. Slumber does not seize Him, neither sleep; to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth, as possessions, creatures and servants; who is there, that is to say, none is there, that shall intercede with Him save by His leave?, in this for him. He knows what lies before them, that is, creation, and what is after them, of the affairs of this world and the Hereafter; and they encompass nothing of His knowledge, that is, they know nothing of what He knows, save such as He wills, to inform of it by way of His messengers. His throne subsumes the heavens and the earth, it is said that His knowledge encompasses them both; it is also said that the kursī (‘throne’) itself subsumes them on account of its vastness, as in the hadīth, ‘The seven heavens compared to the kursī are like seven silver coins lying in a metal shield [of armour]’; the preserving of them, the heavens and the earth, wearies Him not, does not burden Him; He is the Sublime, above His creation by virtue of His subjugation [of them], the Tremendous, the Great.
2.255 Kashani - Kashani
God, there is no god except Him, in existence. So no matter what is worshipped other than Him, the worship that [actually] takes place is of Him alone, whether it is known or not, since there is no worshipped [being] nor exsitent except He; the Living, whose life is His very essence and all that is living lives only through His life; the Eternal Sustainer, is the One who subsists in Himself, and all that subsists does so through Him; were it not for His subsistence, nothing in existence would subsist. [It] seizes Him not, somnolence and drowsiness, as it does living creatures without their intending it, which can only be [the case] for one whose life is accidental, so that nature overwhelms him with an essential state seeking calm and rest and a replacement for the dissolution (taḥlīl) of the waking state. But as for Him whose life is His very Essence, that [state] is not possible for Him. He has made it clear that His life is not an accident in His words: neither sleep. For sleep is incompatible with a life being essential as it is the thing that most resembles death, which is why it is said that sleep is the brother of death. He who has no sleep on account of His Essence - because of it being precluded that His life is other than His Essence - undergoes no somnolence, since somnolence constitutes one of its [sleep's] preludes and effects. [It is] similar to when one says, 'He does not laugh, not even astonished'. His saying slumber seizes Him not, neither sleep, is an explanation of His being the Eternal Sustainer. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth: their fate is in His hand; He does with them as He pleases. Who is there that shall intercede with Him save by His leaveḍ Since everything belongs to Him and it is through Him that the one who speaks through Him speaks and with His speech, so how can they speak without His permission and His willḍ He knows, what is before them and what is after them, so how [can He not know] about them and their stateḍ In other words, His knowledge encompasses all times and all individuals and all states, and thus He knows who is worthy of intercession and who is not worthy of it.
And they encompass nothing of His knowledge save such as He wills, that is, [except for] what His will has required that He teach them. Thus the knowledge of every knower is something of His knowledge manifested in that locus, in the manner related by the angels when they said: we do not have any knowledge except that which You have made us know [Q. 2:32].
His seat, that is, His knowledge, embraces the heavens and the earth, since the kursī is place where knowledge is, which is the heart, as Abū Yazīd al-Basṭāmī, may God have mercy on him, said, 'If the world and everything in it a thousand thousand times over were located in some corner of the heart of the gnostic, he would not notice it, because of the extent of its [that heart's] embrace'. That is also why al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī said that His seat (kursī) is His throne (ʿarsh), drawing upon his [the Prophet's] saying, peace be upon him: 'The heart of the believer derives from the throne of (ʿarsh) God'. [The term] kursī in the classical language is a small ʿarsh, not larger than the seat on which a person sits: the heart is likened to it in order to convey an image in the imagination of its greatness and [the extent of] its embrace. As for the greater glorious throne, it is the First Spirit. The representation of both [the ʿarsh and the kursī] and their image in the witnessed [world] are [respectively] the greatest sphere and the eighth [sphere] which encompasses the seven heavens and all that is in them. [It] wearies Him not, that is, the preserving of them, does not weigh Him down, because they do not exist without Him such that the bearing of them [should then] weary Him. Rather, the whole of the supra-sensory world (ʿālam maʿnawī) is His esoteric aspect and the formal world (ʿālam ṣuwarī) is His exoteric aspect: these have no existence except through Him and are none other than Him. He is the High, in rank, whom nothing surpasses and who surpasses everything and overwhelms it through [its] annihilation; the Tremendous, the quintessence of whose greatness cannot be conceived. Any greatness that might be conceived in the case of a given thing is but a percolation of His greatness. Every great thing is so [only] because of a portion and a tremendous share that it receives from His greatness. Absolute greatness belongs exclusively to Him; indeed all greatness belongs to Him and no other has any share in it. This [verse] is the greatest verse in the QurÌān because of the magnitude of what it demonstrates.
2.255 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
The Virtue of Ayat Al-Kursi
This is Ayat Al-Kursi and tremendous virtues have been associated with it, for the authentic Hadith describes it as `the greatest Ayah in the Book of Allah.' Imam Ahmad recorded that `Ubayy bin Ka`b said that the Prophet asked him about the greatest Ayah in the Book of Allah, and `Ubayy answered, "Allah and His Messenger know better.'' When the Prophet repeated his question several times, `Ubayy said, "Ayat Al-Kursi.'' The Prophet commented,
«لِيَهْنِكَ الْعِلْمُ أَبَا الْمُنْذِرِ، وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ، إِنَّ لَهَا لِسَانًا وَشَفَتَيْنِ، تُقَدِّسُ الْمَلِكَ عِنْدَ سَاقِ الْعَرْش»
(Congratulations for having knowledge, O Abu Al-Mundhir! By He in Whose Hand is my soul! This Ayah has a tongue and two lips with which she praises the King (Allah) next to the leg of the Throne.)
This Hadith was also collected by Muslim, but he did not include the part that starts with, "By He in Whose Hand...''
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Ayyub said that he had some dates and a Ghoul used to take some, and he complained to the Prophet. The Prophet said to him, "When you see her, say, `In the Name of Allah, answer to the Messenger of Allah'.'' Abu Ayyub said that when she came again, he said these words and he was able to grab her. She begged, "I will not come again,'' so Abu Ayyub released her. Abu Ayyub went to the Prophet and the Prophet asked him, "What did your prisoner do'' Abu Ayyub said, "I grabbed her and she said twice, `I will not come again,' and I released her.'' The Prophet said, "She will come back.'' Abu Ayyub said, "So I grabbed her twice or three times, yet each time I would release her when she vowed not to come back. I would go to the Prophet who would ask me, `What is the news of your prisoner' I would say, `I grabbed her, then released her when she said that she would not return.' The Prophet would say that she would return. Once, I grabbed her and she said, `Release me and I will teach you something to recite so that no harm touches you, that is, Ayat Al-Kursi.' Abu Ayyub went to the Prophet and told him, and the Prophet said, "She is liar, but she told the truth.'' At-Tirmidhi recorded this Hadith in the chapter of the virtues of the Qur'an and said, "Hasan Gharib.'' In Arabic, `Ghoul' refers to the Jinn when they appear at night.
Al-Bukhari recorded a similar story in his Sahih from Abu Hurayrah, in the chapters on the virtues of the Qur'an and the description of Shaytan. In this narration, Abu Hurayrah said,
"Allah's Messenger assigned me to keep watch over the Sadaqah (charity) of Ramadan. A person snuck in and started taking handfuls of foodstuff. I caught him and said, `By Allah, I will take you to Allah's Messenger.' He said, `Release me, for I am meek and have many dependents and am in great need.' I released him, and in the morning Allah's Messenger asked me, `What did your prisoner do yesterday, O Abu Hurayrah' I said, `O Allah's Messenger! He complained of being needy and of having many dependents, so I pitied him and let him go.' Allah's Messenger said, `Indeed, he told you a lie and will be coming again.' I believed that he would show up again, for Allah's Messenger had told me that he would return. So, I watched for him. When he (showed up and) started stealing handfuls of foodstuff, I caught hold of him again and said, `I will definitely take you to Allah's Messenger.' He said, `Leave me, for I am very needy and have many dependents. I promise I will not come back again.' I pitied him and let him go. In the morning Allah's Messenger asked me, `What did your prisoner do last night, O Abu Hurayrah!' I replied, `O Allah's Messenger! He complained of his great need and of too many dependents, so I took pity on him and set him free.' Allah's Messenger said, `Verily, he told you a lie; he will return.' I waited for him attentively for the third time, and when he (came and) started stealing handfuls of the foodstuff, I caught hold of him and said, `I will surely take you to Allah's Messenger as it is the third time you promised not to return, yet you returned.' He said, `Let me teach you some words which Allah will give you benefit from.' I asked, `What are they' He replied, `Whenever you go to bed, recite Ayat Al-Kursi- Allahu la ilaha illa Huwal-Hayyul-Qayyum, till you finish the whole verse. (If you do so), Allah will appoint a guard for you who will stay with you, and no Shaytan will come near you until morning.' So, I released him. In the morning, Allah's Messenger asked, `What did your prisoner do yesterday' I replied, `O Allah's Messenger! He claimed that he would teach me some words by which Allah will grant me some benefit, so I let him go.' Allah's Messenger asked, `What are they' I replied, `He said to me: Whenever you go to bed, recite Ayat Al-Kursi from the beginning to the end, Allahu la ilaha illa Huwal-Hayyul-Qayyum. He further said to me: (If you do so), Allah will appoint a guard for you who will stay with you, and no Shaytan will come near you until morning.' (One of the narrators) then commented that they (the Companions) were very keen to do good deeds. The Prophet said, `He spoke the truth, although he is a liar. Do you know whom you were talking to, these three nights, O Abu Hurayrah' Abu Hurayrah said, `No.' He said, `It was Shaytan.''' An-Nasa'i also recorded this Hadith in Al-Yawm wa Al-Laylah.
Allah's Greatest Name is in Ayat Al-Kursi
Imam Ahmad recorded that Asma' bint Yazid bin As-Sakan said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah say about these two Ayat,
اللَّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْحَىُّ الْقَيُّومُ
(Allah! None has the right to be worshipped but He, the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists) 2:255, and,
الم - اللَّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْحَىُّ الْقَيُّومُ
(Alif-Lam-Mim. Allah! None has the right to be worshipped but He, the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists) 3:1-2,
«إِنَّ فِيهِمَا اسْمَ اللهِ الْأَعْظَم»
(They contain Allah's Greatest Name.)
This is also the narration collected by Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, and At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih''.
Further, Ibn Marduwyah recorded that Abu Umamah reported that the Prophet said,
«اسْمُ اللهِ الْأَعْظَمُ، الَّذِي إِذَا دُعِيَ بِهِ أَجَابَ، فِي ثَلَاثٍ: سُورَةِ الْبَقَرَةِ وَآلِ عِمْرَانَ وَطه»
(Allah's Greatest Name, if He was supplicated with it, He answers the supplication, is in three Surahs - Al-Baqarah, Al `Imran and Ta-Ha.)
Hisham bin `Ammar, the Khatib (orator) of Damascus (one of the narrators in the above narration), said, "As for Al-Baqarah, it is in,
اللَّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْحَىُّ الْقَيُّومُ
(Allah! None has the right to be worshipped but He, the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists) 2:255; in Al `Imran, it is in,
الم - اللَّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْحَىُّ الْقَيُّومُ
(Alif-Lam-Mim. Allah! None has the right to be worshipped but He, the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists) 3:1-2, while in Ta-Ha, it is in,
وَعَنَتِ الْوُجُوهُ لِلْحَىِّ الْقَيُّومِ
(And (all) faces shall be humbled before (Allah), the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists) 20:111.''
Ayat Al-Kursi has Ten Complete Arabic Sentences 1. Allah's statement,
اللَّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ
(Allah! None has the right to be worshipped but He) mentions that Allah is the One and Only Lord of all creation. 2. Allah's statement,
الْحَىُّ الْقَيُّومُ
(Al-Hayyul-Qayyum) testifies that Allah is the Ever Living, Who never dies, Who sustains everyone and everything. All creation stands in need of Allah and totally relies on Him, while He is the Most Rich, Who stands in need of nothing created. Similarly, Allah said,
وَمِنْ ءَايَـتِهِ أَن تَقُومَ السَّمَآءُ وَالاٌّرْضُ بِأَمْرِهِ
(And among His signs is that the heaven and the earth stand by His command) 30:25. 3. Allah's statement,
لاَ تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلاَ نَوْمٌ
(Neither slumber nor sleep overtakes Him) means, no shortcoming, unawareness or ignorance ever touches Allah. Rather, He is aware of, and controls what every soul earns, has perfect watch over everything, nothing escapes His knowledge, and no secret matter is secret to Him. Among His perfect attributes, is the fact that He is never effected by slumber or sleep. Therefore, Allah's statement,
لاَ تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ
(Neither slumber overtakes Him) indicates that no unawareness due to slumber ever overtakes Allah. Allah said afterwards,
وَلاَ نَوْمٌ
(nor sleep), which is stronger than slumber. It is recorded in the Sahih that Abu Musa said, "The Messenger of Allah delivered a speech regarding four words:
«إِنَّ اللهَللهَلا يَنَامُ، وَلَا يَنْبَغِي لَهُ أَنْ يَنَامَ، يَخْفِضُ الْقِسْطَ وَيَرْفَعُهُ، يُرْفَعُ إِلَيْهِ عَمَلُ النَّهَارِ قَبْلَ عَمَلِ اللَّيْلِ، وَعَمَلُ اللَّيْلِ قَبْلَ عَمَلِ النَّهَارِ، حِجَابُهُ النُّورُ أَوِ النَّارُ لَوْ كَشَفَهُ لَأَحْرَقَتْ سُبُحَاتُ وَجْهِهِ مَا انْتَهَى إِلَيْهِ بَصَرُهُ مِنْ خَلْقِه»
(Allah does not sleep, and it does not befit His majesty that He sleeps. He lowers the scales and raises them. The deeds of the day are resurrected in front of Him before the deeds of the night, and the deeds of the night before the deeds of the day. His Veil is light, or fire, and if He removes it, the rays from His Face would burn whatever His sight reaches of His creation.)
4. Allah's statement,
لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَـوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الاٌّرْضِ
(To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth) indicates that everyone is a servant for Allah, a part of His kingdom and under His power and authority. Similarly, Allah said,
إِن كُلُّ مَن فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ إِلاَّ آتِى الرَّحْمَـنِ عَبْداً - لَّقَدْ أَحْصَـهُمْ وَعَدَّهُمْ عَدّاً - وَكُلُّهُمْ ءَاتِيهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ فَرْداً
(There is none in the heavens and the earth but comes unto the Most Gracious (Allah) as a servant. Verily, He knows each one of them, and has counted them a full counting. And everyone of them will come to Him alone on the Day of Resurrection (without any helper, or protector or defender)) 19:93-95. 5. Allah's statement,
مَن ذَا الَّذِى يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِ
(Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission) is similar to His statements,
وَكَمْ مِّن مَّلَكٍ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ لاَ تُغْنِى شَفَـعَتُهُمْ شَيْئاً إِلاَّ مِن بَعْدِ أَن يَأْذَنَ اللَّهُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ وَيَرْضَى
(And there are many angels in the heavens, whose intercession will avail nothing except after Allah has given leave for whom He wills and is pleased with) 53:26, and,
وَلاَ يَشْفَعُونَ إِلاَّ لِمَنِ ارْتَضَى
(They cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased) 21:28.
These Ayat assert Allah's greatness, pride, and grace, and that no one dares to intercede with Him on behalf of anyone else, except by His permission. Indeed, the Hadith about the intercession, states that the Prophet said,
«آتِي تَحْتَ الْعَرْشِ فَأَخِرُّ سَاجِدًا، فَيَدَعُنِي مَا شَاءَ اللهُ أَنْ يَدَعَنِي. ثُمَّ يُقَالُ: ارْفَعْ رَأْسَكَ، وَقُلْ تُسْمَعْ، وَاشْفَعْ تُشَفَّعْ قَالَ: فَيَحُدُّ لِي حَدًّا فَأُدْخِلُهُمُ الْجَنَّة»
(I will stand under the Throne and fall in prostration, and Allah will allow me to remain in that position as much as He wills. I will thereafter be told, "Raise your head, speak and you will be heard, intercede and your intercession will be accepted''. The Prophet then said, "He will allow me a proportion whom I will enter into Paradise.'')
6. Allah's statement,
يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ
(He knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world, and what will happen to them in the Hereafter) this refers to His perfect knowledge of all creation; its past, present and future. Similarly, Allah said that the angels proclaimed;
وَمَا نَتَنَزَّلُ إِلاَّ بِأَمْرِ رَبِّكَ لَهُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِينَا وَمَا خَلْفَنَا وَمَا بَيْنَ ذلِكَ وَمَا كَانَ رَبُّكَ نَسِيّاً
(And we (angels) descend not except by the command of your Lord (O Muhammad ). To Him belongs what is before us and what is behind us, and what is between those two; and your Lord is never forgetful) 19:64. 7. Allah's statement,
وَلاَ يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلاَّ بِمَا شَآءَ
(And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills), asserts the fact that no one attains any part of Allah's knowledge except what Allah conveys and allows. This part of the Ayah indicates that no one ever acquires knowledge of Allah and in His Attributes, except what He conveys to them. For instance, Allah said,
وَلاَ يُحِيطُونَ بِهِ عِلْماً
(But they will never compass anything of His knowledge) 20: 110. 8. Allah said,
وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَـوَاتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ
(His Kursi extends over the heavens and the earth.)
Waki` narrated in his Tafsir that Ibn `Abbas said, "Kursi is the footstool, and no one is able to give due consideration to Allah's Throne.'' Al-Hakim recorded this Hadith in his Mustadrak from Ibn `Abbas, who did not relate it to the Prophet. Al-Hakim said, "It is Sahih according to the criteria of the Two Sahihs, and they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not record it.'' In addition, Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said, "If the seven heavens and the seven earths were flattened and laid side by side, they would add up to the size of a ring in a desert, compared to the Kursi.'' 9. Allah said,
وَلاَ يَؤُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا
(And He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them) meaning, it does not burden or cause Him fatigue to protect the heavens and earth and all that is in between them. Rather, this is an easy matter for Him. Further, Allah sustains everything, has perfect watch over everything, nothing ever escapes His knowledge and no matter is ever a secret to Him. All matters are insignificant, modest and humble before Him. He is the Most Rich, worthy of all praise. He does what He wills, and no one can ask Him about what He does, while they will be asked. He has supreme power over all things and perfect alertness concerning everything. He is the Most High, the Greatest, there is no deity worthy of worship except Him, and no Lord other than Him.
10. Allah's statement,
وَهُوَ الْعَلِىُّ الْعَظِيمُ
(And He is the Most High, the Most Great) is similar to His statement,
الْكَبِيرُ الْمُتَعَالِ
(the Most Great, the Most High) 13:9.
These and similar Ayat and authentic Hadiths about Allah's Attributes must be treated the way the Salaf (righteous ancestors) treated them by accepting their apparent meanings without equating them with the attributes of the creation or altering their apparent meanings.
2.255 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Though ignorant people might make several gods and set up objects of worship, the fact remains that the whole of creation belongs to the Eternal, Who has no partner whatsoever. He is the living Allah Who sustains the whole universe. He alone is the Master of His kingdom. None else is a partner in His attributes, characteristics, powers and rights. Hence a lie is invented whenever any Palce god is set up beside Allah on the earth or in the heavens and a war is waged against the Truth.
This refutes the conception of Allah which is based on the assumption that He has weaknesses and limitations like imperfect human beings. For instance the Bible says, "And on the seventh day God ended His work which he had made: and He rested on the seventh day from all the work which He had made" (Genesis 2 : 2 ), and "Then the Lord awaked as one out of sleep, and like a mighty man that shouteth by reason of wine." (Psalms 78 : 65). Of course, Allah is absolutely free from such weaknesses.
He is the Master and Owner of the earth and the heavens and each and everything contained in them, and none else has any part or share in His Ownership, His Authority, His Kingdom, His Sovereignty and His Rule. Anyone or anything that can be conceived as god will surely be a part of the universe and every part of this universe is Allah's property and cannot, therefore, be His partner or rival.
This refutes the wrong notion of those who are under the delusion that saints, angels, etc., wield great influence with Allah, and they will intercede with Him and force Him to pardon them. They are being warned that no creature of His can stand before Him and intercede for others, not to speak of forcing Allah to pardon them. No prophet, no angel, and no saint will dare utter a word without the permission of the Sovereign of the universe.
According to the Qur'an, it is an unpardonable sin to associate any partner or set up any rival to rank with Allah or to assume for oneself His rights or characteristics in any way whatsoever. This is called shirk. In the preceding verse, the Quran strikes at the very root of shirk by declaring that Allah's Sovereignty is unlimited and His Power is absolute. In this verse the same thing is presented from another point of view, by posing the question: How can anyone interfere in the management of the universe when none possesses that knowledge which is a prerequisite for this? The knowledge of the angels and human beings is so imperfect that none of them can understand the system of the universe and, therefore, any interference in its management would invariably result in chaos. Not to speak of the management of the universe, people cannot even know in what lies their own good. It is thus obvious that they should have full confidence in the Guidance of Allah Who is the real source of all knowledge and Who knows in what lies their own good.
The word "kursi' (chair) has been used here figuratively as a symbol of power and authority. Even in English the word chair is used for the seat of authority, and government.
This verse is known as Ayat al-Kursi. It gives such a perfect,knowledge of Allah that has no parallel elsewhere. That is why a Tradition has declared it to be the best verse of the Qur'an. This verse is known as Ayat al-Kursi. It gives such a perfect,knowledge of Allah that has no parallel elsewhere. That is why a Tradition has declared it to be the best verse of the Qur'an.
Here a question arises: In what connection has Allah and His attributes been mentioned in this place? In order to answer this question, we should survey the address which begins from verse 243. First of all the believers have been exhorted to exert their utmost in the Way of Allah and make sacrifice of life and property for its establishment. They have also been warned to ward off those weaknesses in which the Israelites were involved. Then it has been impressed upon them that success does not depend merely upon numbers, provisions and armaments, but upon faith, fortitude, discipline and firm determination. Then the wisdom of war as a weapon with which Allah repels one group by another has been stated; that is, if only one group or one party had been allowed to continue in power, it would have made life difficult for its rivals and opponents. Then it has been shown that Allah is not powerless to remove differences from among the people but it is not His Will to remove these forcibly. Therefore He sends His Messengers with the Truth for this purpose, but leaves the people free to accept or reject it. Again as in the beginning of this discourse, the Muslims have been enjoined to spend their wealth in the Way of Allah. Then in this verse it has been declared that inspite of the differences in the creeds and the religions of the people, the fact is that Allah sustains and controls the whole universe. Of course, it is not His Will to force the people to believe in Him, but He only warns them through His Messengers that those, who will believe in Him and sacrifice their lives and properties in His Way in order to please Him, will be gainers and those, who will disbelieve, shall be losers
2.255 Qushairi - Al-Qushairi
God there is no god except Him the Living the Eternal Sustainer. Allāh is a name ism which only the Real سبحانه possesses and no one can be His namesake samī-God most high said “Do you know [of] anyone who could be His namesakeḍ” [19:65] that is “Do you know anyone other than Him that could be called Allāhḍ” Anyone who regards this as a derived term is like someone lost in his own contradictions. This is a term that denotes worthiness of the attributes of majesty not derivation from [other] words. There are no parallels for what has no parallel in words. His words there is no god except Him is a statement that negates anything equivalent or similar to that of which He is worthy in [terms of] sanctity taqdīs and incomparability tanzīh. Anyone who realizes the truth of this statement will not see so much as a speck to affirm in anything other than Him or from anything other than Him so he will not bring up his need before any other nor bear witness to a speck of anything other than Him. His concentration on Him will be steady and his singular devotion to finding Him will be perpetual. So he does not hear except from God and through God and he does not witness anything except through God and he does not approach anything but God and he does not occupy himself with anything except through God. He is effaced from what is other than God and therefore he has no complaints or requests. Not a drop of blood flows in him for anything other than [God]. When the Real gives to a servant in full measure there is absolutely no room left in him for any worldly concerns. Surely then the truth of this statement [there is no god except Him] must be acknowledged and all other ways of describing things [must] cease. The truth to be realized is that no creature has access to the existence of the Real سبحانه; [there is] no union or parting no nearness or distance for truly those are all accidents which are not worthy of the timeless eternal. The Living ḥayy the Eternal Sustainer qayyūm: The One who takes charge mutawallī of the affairs of His servants the One who concerns Himself with every movement and stillness the One who sets in motion every entity ʿayn and effect athar.
Slumber does not seize Him neither sleep; Because He is One who does not succumb to heedlessness ghafla. He is self-sufficient and sought by all untouched by any defect ʿilla. He is all-mighty far from anything small qilla. He is all-compelling without being isolated ʿuzla. He is unique without a body juththa. He is singular without aspect jiha. He is eternal untouched by any accident āfa. He is tremendous without distance masāfa. His majesty is sanctified from His beauty and His majesty is His beauty. His brilliance is His splendor and His splendor is His brilliance. His eternity without beginning azal is His eternity without end abad. His eternity without end is His eternity without beginning or end sarmad. His eternity without beginning or end is His timeless eternity qidam and His timeless eternity is His existence wujūd. to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth; By way of possession origination creation and invention. who is there that shall intercede with Him save by His leaveḍ Who is there who can take a breath without His bringing it aboutḍ Or [who] can seek access to Him without His leave and initiationḍ Whoever thinks that he can seek access to Him by any entitlement action obsequiousness hope nearness relation reason or cause-conjecturing is his homeland and ignorance his abode. Error is his destination and remoteness his end. He knows what lies before them and what is after them; Because nothing which can be known is left out of His knowledge and no existent or non-existent thing is obscure to Him. and they encompass nothing of His knowledge save such as He wills. This means from the things that are known to Him. In other words the different types of [human] knowledge fall short of encompassing what is known to Him save by His permission. What hope is there in these for encompassing His Essence and Realityḍ How could it be possible to encompass it when there is no point at which His might is cut off and no limit applies to Himḍ His throne subsumes the heavens and the earth; [This is] an address for [people to understand] according to their capacity for comprehension and yet what importance could things that exist have in comparison with His attributesḍ His worth is too exalted in might for a throne or a chair. Being embellished [with things] is for jinns or human beings. the preserving of them wearies Him not; He is the Sublime the Tremendous. How could created things tire the One to whom the creation of the atom and the entire cosmos are the sameḍ Nothing small is too easy for him tayassur and nothing large is too difficult taʿassur.
2.255 Tustari - Al-Tustari
God, There is no god except Him, the Living, the Eternal Sustainer…He replied:This is the mightiest (aʿẓam) verse in God’s Book, Exalted is He. Within it is God’s Greatest Name, and it is written across the sky in green light in one line from East to West. This is how I saw it written on the Night of Great Merit (Laylat al-Qadr) in ʿAbbādān: There is no god except Him, the Living, the Eternal Sustainer.The Living, the Eternal Sustainer is the One who oversees everything pertaining to His creatures: their life spans, their actions, and their provision. He is the One who requites goodness (iḥsān) with goodness, and misdeeds with forgiveness (ghufrān), but He requites hypocrisy, disbelief and innovation with punishment. Whoever pronounces the saying: ‘There is no god except God’ has made a pact with God, so it is unlawful for him, after making a pact with God, to disobey Him in any of His commandments or prohibitions, in secret or public, or to support His enemy, or to show enmity towards a friend of His.…No slumber can seize Him, nor sleep… Slumber (sina) here means sleepiness.He [Sahl] also said:Slumber is when the heart (qalb) is mingled with sleep.