Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
Allah then declares His Oneness because the unbelievers denied this divine Oneness, saying: (Your God is one God) without son or partner; (there is no God save Him, the Beneficent) the Tender, (the Merciful) the Compassionate.
And your God is one God. There is no god but He, the All-Merciful, the Ever-Merciful.
This is the description of the one Lord, the one Lord God and King. He is one in magnanimity and governance, one in forbearance and beautiful doing, one in generosity and peerlessness, one in loving kindness and servant-caressing. Every magnificence is the mantle of His majesty, and in that He is one. Every tremendousness and all-compellingness is the shawl of His lordhood, and in that He is one. He is one in Essence, one in attributes, one in deed and mark, one in loyalty and compact, one in gentleness and caressing, one in love and friendship.
On the day of apportioning, who was there but He, the One? Before the day of apportioning who was there? That same One. After the day of apportioning, who handed over those portions? That same One. Who shows? That same One. Who adorns? That same One.
He is more apparent than everything in the world of apparentness, and in this apparentness He is one. He is more hidden than anything in the world of hiddenness, and in this hiddenness He is one.
O You who are more face-to-face than anything in the world! You are more hidden than the world's most hidden thing!
O You who are more distant than all that the servants suppose!
You are closer to the servants than the spirit's vein.
How disloyal the Adamite who does not know the worth of this declaration and the exaltedness of this ascription! God says, “And your God is one God.” The wonder is not that He ascribed the servants to Himself, joined them to Himself, and said, “Surely My servants” [15:42]. The wonder is that He ascribed Himself to the servants and joined His name to their name, saying, “Your God.” This is not because His lordhood must be joined to the servant's servanthood, or that the servants are deserving of that. Rather, in generosity and loving kindness He Himself is unique and one. In magnanimity He is worthy of every generous bestowal and every gift.
In the place of our Heart-taker's beauty and loveliness, we are not suited for Him-He is suited for us.
And your God is one God. There was no world and no Adam. There were no tracks and no traces, there was no one in the house.
He was the care-taking and loving Lord, writing out your good fortune and accepting you to be His friend while you were still in nonexistence.
O You who were there for me when I was not there for You!
On the night of the Prophet's ascent to God, when secrets were told to the Master of the world, one of them was this: “Belong to Me as you always were, and I will belong to you as I have always been.” Belong totally to Me and be nothing, just as you were; then I will be for you as I was in the Beginningless.
Shaykh al-Islām Anṣārī said in his whispered prayers, “I am happy that You were there at first and I was not. Your work took effect and mine did not. You put forth Your worth and You sent Your Messenger.
“O God! Whatever You have given us without our seeking-do not ruin it with what we deserve! Whatever good You have done for us-do not cut it off because of our defects! Whatever You have made without our worthiness-do not separate it from us by our unworthiness!
“O God! Do not bring to fruit what we ourselves have planted! Keep blights away from what You planted for us!”
There is no god but He, the All-Merciful, the Ever-Merciful. Other than He there is no Lord, and other than He there is none worthy of worship, for no one caresses and bestows bounty like Him. He is the All-Merciful who gives when they ask of Him, and He is the Ever-Merciful who becomes angry when they do not ask. A report has come, “When someone does not ask from God, God becomes wrathful toward him.”
He is the All-Merciful who accepts the servants' obedience, even if it is little, and He is the Ever-Merciful who forgives their disobedient acts even if they are great. He is the All-Merciful who adorns outwardness and sculpts the form, and He is the Ever-Merciful who makes inwardness flourish and guards the hearts in His grasp. He is the All-Merciful who makes subtle lights appear in your face, and He is the Ever-Merciful who places the deposits of secrets in your heart.
When they asked him [Muhammad (s)] to describe his Lord, the following was revealed: Your God, the One deserving of your worship, is One God, without any equal in either essence or attribute; there is no god except Him, He is the Compassionate, the Merciful.
Your God is One God [there is no god except Him]: the object of your worship to whom you have exclusively dedicated your worship, O affirmers of the Oneness, is a worshipped One in Essence, One absolutely, apart from Whom there is nothing in existence and besides Whom there is no existent to be worshipped. So how can you associate [others] with Him when all that is other than Him is pure non-existence. Thus association can only be out of ignorance of Him, the Compassionate, Who comprehends mercy for every existent, the Merciful, Who singles out the mercy of His guidance for the believers who are affirmers of His Oneness. This is the first verse revealed concerning the affirmation of Oneness according to the levels [of tawḥīd], in other words, [it is] the most formative declaration of Oneness from the perspective of the Truth but not from our perspective, for the first declaration of Oneness from our part is the affirmation of the unity of the acts, while that [formative one] is the declaration of the unity of the [Divine] Essence; but because this [latter] declaration of unity is too remote from the utmost extent of comprehension of people it came down to the station of the declaration of the unity of the acts so that it can be inferred from the latter. Thus He says:
In this Ayah, Allah mentions that He is the only deity, and that He has no partners or equals. He is Allah, the One and Only, the Sustainer, and there is no deity worthy of worship except Him. He is the Most Gracious ـ Ar-Rahman, the Most Merciful ـ Ar-Rahim. We explained the meanings of these two Names in the beginning of Surat Al-Fatihah. Shahr bin Hawshab reported that Asma' bint Yazid bin As-Sakan narrated that Allah's Messenger said:
(Alif-Lam-Mim. Allah! La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), Al-Haiyul-Qaiyum (the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists).) (3:1, 2)''
Then Allah mentions some of the proof that He is alone as the deity, that He is the One who created the heavens and the earth and all of the various creatures between them, all of which testify to His Oneness. Allah said:
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Anyone who does not look around like an animal but makes an intelligent observation of the great system of the universe that is working day and night before his very eyes, and is not blinded by prejudice or obduracy, can see many a sign pointing to the Reality. He will certainly see that it is being ruled only by the All-Powerful, All-Wise Sovereign. He can also understand that Allah alone is the God of the whole universe and that there is absolutely no room for any kind of interference or partnership, for no one else has any quality or power or authority to entitle him to the claim of Godhead.
They set up equals......": they ascribe some of the exclusive qualities and powers of Allah to others and render all or some of His exclusive rights to false gods. For instance, though Allah alone has control over all the forces of nature and has the power to fulfil all the needs of His creatures and to hear their prayers and requests, and although He alone knows all that is open or hidden, yet they invoke others for help or attribute all or some of these powers and qualities to others than Allah and thus set up compeers to rank with Him.
Again it is the exclusive right of Allah that His subjects should acknowledge Him as the Supreme Authority, bow down their heads before Him and fear Him alone in open and secret. But as they render all or some rights to others than Allah, they set up compeers with Him. Then, Allah alone is entitled to prescribe what is lawful and what is unlawful, what is clean and what is unclean. He alone has the authority to define the rights and duties of His subjects, lay down commands and prohibitions for them, etc. Therefore those who arrogate to themselves any of these rights shall be guilty of shirk. Again, He alone deserves to be acknowledged as the Sovereign and, as His subjects, the people should consider His Commandments to be final and turn to Him for guidance; therefore those who ascribe any of these rights to others than Allah, set up compeers with Him; likewise those institutions or persons who claim to possess any of these qualities or rights or assume to themselves any of these qualities or rights or demand that others should accede these to them, set themselves as compeers with Allah, whether or not they put forward formal claims to Godhead.
Belief in Allah demands that one should prefer His Will to one's own will or to that of others, and cherish His love so dearly as to be ready to sacrifice all other affections for its sake.
This helpless end of the ring-leaders and misguiders and their followers has been specially mentioned here to warn the Muslims to be very careful in selecting and electing their leaders and guides. The former communities weal astray because they followed wrong leaders and evil guides. The Muslims should, therefore, learn a lesson from their end and discriminate between leaders and misleaders and should not follow the latter.
Your God is One God; there is no god except Him the Compassionate the Merciful. He honored them with the greatest honor in saying “Your God.” The shaykhs of this group said that the sign of the one whom He has prepared for the elect of the elect is that He says to him “My servant”-and this is more perfect than that. His saying “Your God” connecting His reality to you is better than His connecting you to Himself. This is because His divinity for you is without defect while your existence for Him is as a servant with only your defects and harms to give in exchange. When did He say to you “Your God”ḍ Was it at the time of your obedience your movements and states of rest your essence or qualitiesḍ Nay it was before that in the eternity of eternity time without time or season outward marking or event. The One who: there is nothing similar that comes close to Him there is no resemblance that approaches Him there is no partner who is related to Him there is no companion who is on intimate terms with Him there is no associate who works hand in hand with Him there is no helper who assists Him and there is no combatant who opposes Him. [It is] the oneness of the Real the eternalness of the source the perpetuity of the Abiding the endlessness of Might and the sempiternity of the Essence. [He is] One in the might of His radiance singular in the majesty of His splendor alone in the omnipotence of His grandeur eternal in the authority of His might glorious in the beauty of His sovereignty. Whoever tries to speak at length describing Him becomes incapable of expression. If it were not for the fact that He is the Compassionate the Merciful then the servant would be destroyed when exposed to knowledge of Him at the first glimmer of the appearances of His might.