Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(Nay) it is certainly not as you have claimed, (but whoever surrendereth his purpose to Allah) whoever makes sincere his Religion and works to Allah (while doing good) in words and deeds, (his reward is with his Lord) in Paradise; (and there shall no fear come upon them) about staying eternally in hell (neither shall they grieve) about the prospect of missing Paradise.
No, whosoever submits his face to God, doing the beautiful, shall have his wage with his Lord, and no fear shall be upon them, neither shall they grieve.
The work is the work of the purifiers, the good fortune the good fortune of the truthful, the conduct the conduct of the pure, and the hard cash the hard cash in their purse. Today they are on the carpet of service with the light of recognition, tomorrow on the carpet of companionship with the joy of union. Surely We purified them with that which is pure [38:46]. He is saying, “We made them pure and brought them forth pure from the crucible of testing so that they would be worthy for the Presence,” for the Pure Presence gives access only to the pure. “Surely God is goodly and accepts only the goodly.” Nothing is of any use with the Pure Presence save pure activity and pure speech. Then you must become so purified of that pure activity that you do not seek it out in this world or the afterworld. Then you may reach God pure. Surely he shall have nearness to Us, and a beautiful return [38:40].
The secret of this talk is what was said by Abū Bakr Zaqqāq: “The defect in the purity of every purifier is to see his purity. If God desires to purify his self-purification, He will eliminate the seeing of his self-purification from his purification. Then he will be 'purified' [mukhlaṣ], not 'purifying' [mukhliṣ].” He is saying that your self-purification will be pure when it is pure of your seeing it.
Know also that this self-purification is not in your hands, nor in your capacity or possession. Rather, it is a secret of the Lord placed there by the Glorified. No one is aware of it, and no one else has any access to it. The Unity says, “It is one of My secrets that I deposit in the hearts of those whom I love among My servants.” He is saying, “I choose a servant and approve him for My love, then I place my deposit in the core of his heart. Satan has no access to it so as to destroy it, nor does the soul's caprice see it so as to change it, nor does the angel reach it so as to write it down.
” This is why Junayd said, “Self-purification is a secret between God and the servant. No angel knows it that he might write it down, no satan that he might corrupt it, and no caprice that it might make it deviate.” Dhu'l-Nūn Miṣrī said, “When this deposit is placed within someone, his mark is that people's praise and censure have the same value. He sees their applause and their curses in one
color. He does not become happy from the former, nor does he shrivel from the latter.”
Thus on the night of proximity and generosity, all creatures were reciting the edict of MuṣṬafā's ruling authority, but he did not look at anything from the corner of his eye. He was saying, “You who are the proximate of the Presence are saying, 'Peace be upon the wholesome Prophet, who is the best of those in heaven and earth.' But I am waiting to be taken back to the doorstep of the cruelty of Abū Jahl so that he may say, 'O sorcerer! O liar!' Just as I strike the 'best of those in the heaven and earth' against the touchstone, so also I strike it against 'sorcerer, liar.' If the two do
not have the same value, I will take off the hat of my claims.”
Go, you're still in bond to attributes, still in love with yourself,
if you find the pulpit's exaltation sweeter than the gallows' abasement. (DS 210)
Someone like this is called “purified,” not “purifier,” as Abū Bakr Zaqqāq said: “Then he will be purified, not purifier.” The purifier is someone in a whirlpool in the middle of the perilous ocean. The life-snatching sharks come to him from right and left. He cuts through the water and he is fearful about how and when he will reach the shore of security. This is why the great ones of the past have said, “The purifier is in great peril.”
The purified is he who has reached the shore of security. The Lord of the Worlds has shown that Moses had both states. He says, “Surely he was 'purifier/purified' and he was a messenger, and prophet” [19:51]. This has been read as both mukhliṣ and mukhlaṣ.” If you read it as purifier, then it is the beginning of his work. If you read it as purified, then it is the end of his work.
He was a purifier when the work of prophethood joined with him and the caress of Unity showed its face to him. He became purified when the work of prophethood took flight and he became bold toward the Exalted Presence. This is indeed the state of someone who first had traveling and then reached the pull of the Real.
What a difference there is between him and our prophet MuḤammad! The difference between MuḤammad and Moses is such that he was protected by the lasso of the Real's pull before the era of Adam's clay, as he said: “I was a prophet when Adam was molded of clay.” This is why Shiblī said, “Everyone will have an antagonist at the resurrection, and I will be Adam's antagonist, for he made my road steep, because I was stuck in his mire.”
Concerning this Shaykh al-Islām Anṣārī said, “Do you know when the realizer reaches the Real? When the flood of lordhood arrives and the dust of mortal nature disappears, when the Haqiqah increases and the pretext decreases. Body does not remain, nor heart, nor spirit. He stays limpid, released from water and clay. Light is not mixed with dust, nor dust with light-dust is with dust, and light with light. The tongue is lost in remembrance, remembrance in the Remembered. The heart is lost in love, love in the Light. The spirit is lost in face-to-face vision, and face-to-face vision is far from explication.”
If you want this day, come out of yourself like a snake from its skin. Abandon yourself, for it is not beautiful for you to be ascribed to yourself. This is exactly what that chevalier said:
“Endless passion has nothing to do with a heart that stays firm in its own attributes.
No friend in passion's road has ever embraced
the realm of meaning along with the realm of form.” [DS 209-10]
Nay, but, others will also enter Paradise, namely, whoever submits his purpose to God, that is, adheres to His commands (wajh, ‘face’ [sc. ‘purpose’], is here mentioned because it is the most noble part of the body, so that [when it has submitted] there is all the more reason for the other parts [to follow]), being virtuous, affirming God’s Oneness, his reward is with his Lord, the reward of his deeds being Paradise, and no fear shall befall them, neither shall they grieve, in the Hereafter.
Nay, but, whoever submits his purpose, that is, his essence as it exists with the totality of its concomitants and accidents, to God, through essential affirmation of the Oneness upon total effacement and annihilation in the Essence of God, being virtuous, that is, upright in his states through subsistence after annihilation, witnessing his Lord in his actions, returning from the essential witnessing to the station of virtue of attributes which is to witness the place of uprightness and worship through the Existence of the Truth and not through the ego-centric soul, his reward is with his Lord, namely, the Garden that you have mentioned but purer and more delightful because it is specific to the station [divine] withness (ʿindiyya), that is, the witnessing which they have been veiled from, and no fear shall befall them, neither shall they grieve, that is, and more in addition to the Garden that will be yours and that is that they shall not fear the veiling of the essence and the subsistence of the soul that is the concomitant of the existence of what remains of them, and that they shall not grieve for what has eluded them because of their having stopped at the veil of the Garden of the acts and the attributes and the delighting in it and the resting therein and being there forever instead of the presential vision of the beauty of the Essence, for even if they abandon it out of yearning for the self-disclosure of the Essence, they shall still have it [that Garden], their lowest station being below the Garden of the Essence.
Allah made the confusion of the Jews and the Christians clear, since they claim that no one will enter Paradise, unless he is a Jew or a Christian. Similarly, Allah mentioned their claims in Surat Al-Ma'idah:
نَحْنُ أَبْنَاءُ اللَّهِ وَأَحِبَّاؤُهُ
(We are the children of Allah and His loved ones) (5:18).
Allah refuted this false claim and informed them that they will be punished because of their sins. Previously we mentioned their claim that the Fire would not touch them for more than a few days, after which they would be put in Paradise. Allah rebuked this claim, and He said about this baseless claim, m
(These are their own desires). Abu Al-`Aliyah commented, "These are wishes that they wished Allah would answer, without basis.'' Similar was stated by Qatadah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. Allah then said,
(Say) meaning, "Say O Muhammad:''
("Produce your Burhan...'') meaning, "Your proof'', as Abu Al-`Aliyah, Mujahid, As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas stated. Qatadah said that the Ayah means, "Bring the evidence that supports your statement,
(Yes! But whoever submits his face (himself) to Allah (i.e. follows Allah's religion of Islamic Monotheism) and he is a Muhsin) meaning, "Whoever performs deeds in sincerity, for Allah alone without partners.'' In a similar statement, Allah said,
(So if they dispute with you (Muhammad ) say: "I have submitted myself to Allah (in Islam), and (so have) those who follow me.'') (3:20)
Abu Al-`Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` said that,
بَلَى مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ
(Yes! But whoever submits his face (himself) to Allah) means, "Whoever is sincere with Allah.''
Also, Sa`id bin Jubayr said that,
بَلَى مَنْ أَسْلَمَ
(Yes! But whoever submits) means, he is sincere,
(his face (himself)) meaning, in his religion.
(and he is a Muhsin) following the Messenger. For there are two conditions for deeds to be accepted; the deed must be performed for Allah's sake alone and conform to the Shari`ah. When the deed is sincere, but does not conform to the Shari`ah, then it will not be accepted. The Messenger of Allah said,
(Whoever performs a deed that does not conform with our matter (religion), then it will be rejected.)
This Hadith was recorded by Muslim. Therefore, the good deeds of the priests and rabbis will not be accepted, even if they are sincerely for Allah alone, because these deeds do not conform with the method of the Messenger, who was sent for all mankind. Allah said regarding such cases,
(Some faces, that Day will be humiliated. Laboring, weary. They will enter in the hot blazing Fire. They will be given to drink from a boiling spring) (88:2-5).
When the deed conforms to the Shari`ah outwardly, but the person did not perform it sincerely for Allah alone, the deed will also be rejected, as in the case of the hypocrites and those who do their deeds to show off. Similarly, Allah said,
(Verily, the hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives them. And when they stand up for As-Salah (the prayer), they stand with laziness to be seen by people, and they do not remember Allah but little.) (4:142) and,
(So woe unto those performers of Salah (prayers) (hypocrites). Those who delay their Salah (from their stated fixed times). Those who do good deeds only to be seen (of men). And withhold Al-Ma`un (small kindnesses)) (107:4-7).
(The Jews said that the Christians follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); and the Christians said that the Jews follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); though they both recite the Scripture.)
Allah explained the disputes, hatred and stubbornness that the People of the Book have towards each other. Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "When a delegation of Christians from Najran came to the Messenger of Allah, the Jewish rabbis came and began arguing with them before the Messenger of Allah. Rafi` bin Huraymilah said, `You do not follow anything,' and he reiterated his disbelief in Jesus and the Injil. Then a Christian man from Najran's delegation said to the Jews, `Rather, you do not follow anything,' and he reiterated his rejection of Musa's prophethood and his disbelief in the Torah. So Allah revealed the Ayah,
(The Jews said that the Christians follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); and the Christians said that the Jews follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); though they both recite the Scripture. )''
Allah made it clear that each party read the affirmation of what they claimed to reject in their Book. Consequently, the Jews disbelieve in Jesus, even though they have the Torah in which Allah took their Covenant by the tongue of Moses to believe in Jesus. Also, the Gospel contains Jesus' assertion that Moses' prophethood and the Torah came from Allah. Yet, each party disbelieved in what the other party had.
(Like unto their word, said those who know not) thus exposing the ignorance displayed by the Jews and the Christians concerning their statements that we mentioned. There is a difference of opinion regarding the meaning of Allah's statement,
الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ
(who know not)
For instance, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Qatadah said that,
كَذَلِكَ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ
(Like unto their word, said those said those who know not) means, "The Christians said similar statements to the Jews.'' Ibn Jurayj asked `Ata' "Who are those `who know not''' `Ata' said, "Nations that existed before the Jews and the Christians and before the Torah and the Gospel.'' Also, As-Suddi said that,
قَالَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ
(said those who know not) is in reference to the Arabs who said that Muhammad was not following anything (i. e. did not follow a true or existing religion). Abu Ja`far bin Jarir chose the view that this Ayah is general and that there is no evidence that specifically supports any of these explanations. So interpreting the Ayah in a general way is better. Allah knows best.
(Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that wherein they have been differing.) meaning, that Allah will gather them all on the Day of Return. On that Day, Allah will justly judge between them, for He is never unjust with anyone, even as little as the weight of an atom. This Ayah is similar to Allah's statement in Surat Al-Hajj (22:17),
(Verily, those who believe (in Allah and in His Messenger Muhammad ), and those who are Jews, and the Sabians, and the Christians, and the Majus, and those who associate partners with Allah; truly, Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection. Verily, Allah is over all things a Witness).
Nay but whoever submits his purpose to God being virtuous his reward is with his Lord and no fear shall befall them neither shall they grieve. He submits his purpose aslama wajhahu means he remains loyal to the quest for God devotes his purpose to God alone and purifies his resolve from any faults. Being virtuous [means] possessing knowledge by the truth of what he does and the truth of what he practices. He is virtuous in the end wa-huwa muḥsin fī l-maÌāl just as he submits in the present kamā annahu muslim fī l-ḥāl. It is said that virtuousness iḥsān is that you worship God as if you see Him so that you will be submitting with your outward form and witnessing with your innermost hearts. Outwardly there is effort and physical prostration fī l-ẓāhir jahd wa-sujūd and inwardly there is unveiling and ecstatic finding fī l-bāṬin kashf wa-wujūd. It is said that one submits his purpose by persisting in obedient actions being virtuous maintaining the good manners of service ādāb al-khidma by the beautiful manners of presence bi-ḥusni ādāb al-ḥuḌūr. No fear of abandonment will befall them khawf al-hajr neither will secret deception khafīy al-makr overcome them. This world will not distract them from witnessing and tomorrow the hereafter will not distract them from the vision.
Nay, but whoever submits his purpose to God, being virtuous...Concerning these words of God, Exalted is He, Sahl said:That is, his religion, is as it is said in Sūrat al-Nisāʾ: Who is fairer in religion than one who submitshis purpose to God? [4:125], meaning: ‘Than a person who dedicates (akhlaṣa) his religion purely to God’, that is, Islam and its laws. This meaning is reiterated in Sūra Luqmān: Whoever surrenders his purpose to God, and is virtuous [31:22], which means [whoever] devotes himself in religion purely to God.He was asked about His words, Exalted is He: