Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(He said: My Lord) O my Lord, (Because Thou hast sent me astray) as you made me err from guidance, (I verily shall adorn the path of error) lusts and desires (for them) for the children of Adam (in the earth, and shall mislead them) make them to err (every one) from guidance.
Said he, ‘My Lord, because You have lead me astray (bi-mā, ‘because’, the bi- is for oaths, the response for which is [what follows]) I shall adorn for them [evil acts], acts of disobedience, in the earth and I shall lead them astray, all of them;
("Do you see this one whom You have honored above me, if You give me respite until the Day of Resurrection, I will surely seize and mislead his offspring, all but a few!'') (17:62).
((Allah) said), i.e., threatening and warning Iblis.
هَذَا صِرَطٌ عَلَىَّ مُسْتَقِيمٌ
(This is the way which will lead straight to Me.) means, `all of you will return to Me, and I will reward or punish you according to your deeds: if they are good then I will reward you, and if they are bad then I will punish you.' This is like the Ayah:
إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَبِالْمِرْصَادِ
(Verily, your Lord is ever watchful.) (89:14) and
وَعَلَى اللَّهِ قَصْدُ السَّبِيلِ
(And it is up to Allah to show the right way.) (16:9)
إِنَّ عِبَادِى لَيْسَ لَكَ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَـنٌ
(Certainly, you shall have no authority over My servants) meaning, `you will have no way to reach those for whom I have decreed guidance.'
إِلاَّ مَنِ اتَّبَعَكَ مِنَ الْغَاوِينَ
(except those of the astray who follow you.) Ibn Jarir mentioned that Yazid bin Qusayt said: "The Prophets used to have Masjids outside their cities, and if a Prophet wanted to consult with his Lord about something, he would go out to his place of worship and pray as Allah decreed. Then he would ask Him about whatever was concerning him. Once while a Prophet was in his place of worship, the enemy of Allah - meaning Iblis - came and sat between him and the Qiblah (direction of prayer). The Prophet said, `I seek refuge with Allah from the accursed Shaytan.' The enemy of Allah said, `Do you know who you are seeking refuge from Here he is!' The Prophet said, `I seek refuge with Allah from the accursed Shaytan', and he repeated that three times. Then the enemy of Allah said, `Tell me about anything in which you will be saved from me.' The Prophet twice said, `No, you tell me about something in which you can overpower the son of Adam' Each of them was insisting that the other answer first, then the Prophet said, Allah says,
(Certainly, you shall have no authority over My servants, except those of the astray who follow you.) The enemy of Allah said, `I heard this before you were even born.' The Prophet said, `And Allah says,
(And if an evil whisper comes to you from Shaytan then seek refuge with Allah. Verily, He is All-Hearing, All-Knowing) (7: 200). By Allah, I never sense that you are near but I seek refuge with Allah from you.' The enemy of Allah said, `You have spoken the truth. In this way you will be saved from me.' The Prophet said, `Tell me in what ways you overpower the son of Adam.' He said, `I seize him at times of anger and times of desire.'
وَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ لَمَوْعِدُهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ
(And surely, Hell is the place promised for them all.) meaning, Hell is the abode designated for all those who follow Iblis, as Allah says in the Qur'an:
(but those of the sects (Jews, Christians and all the other non-Muslim nations) that reject it (the Qur'an), the Fire will be their promised meeting place.)(11:17)
The Gates of Hell are Seven
Then Allah tells us that Hell has seven gates:
لِكُلِّ بَابٍ مِّنْهُمْ جُزْءٌ مَّقْسُومٌ
(for each of those gates is a (special) class (of sinners) assigned.) means, for each gate a portion of the followers of Iblis have been decreed, and they will have no choice in the matter. May Allah save us from that. Each one will enter a gate according to his deeds, and will settle in a level of Hell according to his deeds. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Samurah bin Jundub reported from the Prophet about,
لِكُلِّ بَابٍ مِّنْهُمْ جُزْءٌ مَّقْسُومٌ
(for each of those gates is a class assigned.) He said,
(Among the people of Hell are those whom the Fire will swallow up to the ankles, and those whom it will swallow up to the waist, and those whom it will swallow up to the collarbone.) The degree of which will depend upon their deeds. This is like the Ayah;
لِكُلِّ بَابٍ مِّنْهُمْ جُزْءٌ مَّقْسُومٌ
(for each of those gates is a class assigned.)
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
The Arabic word "salsal" means the dried clay which produces a sound like pottery."
"Hams " is "the black mud which has become so rotten as to be in a fermented state."
"Masnun" has a double meaning: (a) "rotten clay which has become greasy" (b) clay which has been molded into a shape." It is clear from the wording of the text that at first the image of man was made of clay from rotten earth and when it dried up, soul was breathed into it. Thus the Qur'an positively refutes the Darwinian theory of Evolution that man came into existence after passing through continuous genetic adaptations. It will, therefore, be a futile attempt, as some modernized commentators have done, to prove that theory from the Qur'an.
As `samum' is not wind, `nar-i-samum" will mean "flame of heat" ("intense heat") and not of "fin." This is the explanation of those passages in which it has been stated that jinns have been created from fire.
"....(when I have) breathed of My spirit into him...." = "....(when I have) cast a reflection of My Divine characteristics on him.... " This shows that the soul of man implies "life, knowledge, power, will, discretion and other human characteristics in the aggregate. These are in reality a slight reflection of Divine characteristics that has been cast on the human body, which was originally created from dried clay. And it is this Divine reflection on the human body which has raised him to the position of the Vicegerent of Allah and made him that worthy being before whom angels and every earthly thing should bow down.
As a matter of fact, the source of each characteristic of everything is one Divine characteristic or the other, as is borne by a Tradition: “Allah divided Mercy into one hundred parts: then He reserved ninety-nine parts for Himself and sent down the remaining one part to the Earth. It is because of that one part that the creatures show mercy to one another. So much so that it is due to this that an animal refrains from placing the hoof on its young ones.”
In this connection one has to be on strict guard against the notion that the possession of a part of any Divine characteristic amounts to the possession of a part of Godhead. This is because Godhead is absolutely beyond the reach of each and every creation.
Please compare this passage (vv. 30-43) with II: 30-39, IV: 117-120 and VII: 11-25 and also refer to E.N.'s appended to these.
That is, "You shall remain accused up to the Resurrection. Then you shall be punished for your disobedience on the Day of Judgment."
That is, "Thou hast beguiled me by commanding me to bow down before a creature who is inferior to me: for it is obvious that I could not obey such an order. Therefore, I will now beguile them and disobey Thee." In other words, Iblis meant to say, "I will make the worldly life, its enjoyments and its transitory benefits so alluring for man that he will forget the responsibilities of the Vicegerent of Allah, and that he shall have to render his account in the Hereafter. They will also forget Thee and will disobey Thee, even though they would profess to remember Thee."
This verse (41) may have another meaning: "This is the right thing: I also will stick to this."
This verse (42) also may have another meaning: "You will have no power over My servants (common people) to force them to disobey Me. However, We will give freedom of action to those who will willingly or deliberately follow you, and we will not forcibly prevent them from your way, if they intended to follow you."
According to the first rendering, these verses will mean this: "The way followed by My sincere servants is the only straight way to reach Me. Satan will have no power over those people who follow it, for I will choose them to be My own servants." Satan himself admitted that he will not be able to entice them. On the contrary, he will succeed in beguiling those people, who themselves will deviate from the way of obedience. They will then wander farther and farther away following his temptations and allurements.
According to the second meaning, the passage will mean this: "When Satan challenged that he would beguile people from the Way of Allah by making this worldly life very tempting to them, Allah accepted his challenge but made it clear to him that he was being allowed only to beguile people with temptation, but was not being given any power to force them to deviate from the Right Way. At this, Satan clarified that his challenge did not apply to those people whom Allah will choose for Himself. As this exception might have led to a misunderstanding that Allah may choose any people for Himself to keep them safe and secure from the reach of Satan, Allah clarified it, saying "Only that person will follow you, who himself will deviate from the Right Way. " As a corollary to this, "That person, who will not deviate from the Right Way will not follow you, and will, thus become Our servant, whom We will choose for Our-self."
In order to comprehend the purpose for which the story of Prophet Adam and Satan has been related here, we should keep in mind the context in which this has occurred. In the preceding verses (1-25), it has been stated that the disbelievers were following the ways of deviation that would lead them to perdition. This story has been related to warn them that the ways they were following were the ways of Satan, their eternal enemy, so as to say, "You should realize the consequences of following Satan, who has enticed you in this snare, and is leading you to the lowest depths of degradation because of this enmity and envy. In contrast to this, Our Prophet is doing his utmost w free you from his snare and lead you to the height of success, which as a man you should desire to achieve. But it is a pity that you are regarding your enemy (Satan) as your friend, and your friend (Our ) as your enemy."
Secondly, the story also makes quite clear to them this thing:
"There is only one way of salvation and that is the Way of obedience to Allah. If you discard this Way, every other way will be a way of Satan which will take you directly to Hell."
Than this story is meant to bring home to them this fact: You yourselves are responsible for your wrong deeds and not Satan; for, the most he can do is to beguile you from the obedience of Allah and hold temptations before you It is therefore, your own concern and responsibility to be beguiled or not to be beguiled by Satan. "