Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(And He it is who spread out the earth) He spread out the earth on water (and placed therein firm hills) He created in the earth firm mountains as pillars (and flowing streams) and placed therein flowing rivers, (and of all fruits) and of all the different kinds of fruit (He placed therein two spouses) sweet and sour are one pair, the white and the red are another pair. (He covereth the night with the day) and the day with the night, i.e. He brings the day and removes the night and brings the night and removes the day. (Lo! Herein) in the difference of that which I have mentioned (verily are portents) signs (for people who take thought) in order to reflect.
And He it is who spread out the earth and placed within it unshaking mountains.
In terms of the allusion and intimation of the Folk of the Haqiqah He is saying, " It is He who spread out the earth and placed within it the Pegs, namely the friends and masters among His servants, to whom recourse is had and from whom assistance comes. "
The sun rises in the east and sets in the west for a hundred years before someone's eyes are daubed with the collyrium of the Haqiqah by the pencil of solicitude. Perhaps we will be allowed to see those chevaliers and reach endless felicity with one look at them. For thousands of years the moon-faced beauties of Firdaws and the houris of paradise have been standing in wait in that busy bazaar: When will the fortunate procession of those chevaliers be conveyed to the highest of the High Chambers so that they, as hangers-on, may step into the pageant of good fortune at an Omnipotent King [54:55].
On the day Junayd's bier was carried, a bird came and sat on the edge of his coffin. People were waving their hands at it but it would not leave. Ruwaym said, " In generosity the bird is telling us with the tongue of its state, 'Leave me alone, for my claws have been fixed to the edge of his coffin with the nails of passion. Today this frame of Junayd is the portion of the cherubim. If not for the intrusion of your tumult, you would fly with me like falcons in this air.' " When they buried him, one of the poor stood above him and recited these verses:
" Oh the grief at separation from a group who are lamps and fortresses,
rain clouds, cities, and unshaking mountains, good, security, and stillness.
The nights will not change for us
until they are brought forth by fate.
So every fire belongs to our hearts, every water belongs to our eyes. "
And He it is Who spread out, extended [flat], the earth and set, created, therein firm mountains and rivers, and of every fruit He has made in it two kinds, of every species. He covers, He cloaks, the night, and its darkness, with the day. Surely in that, which is mentioned, are signs, indications of His Oneness, exalted be He, for a people who reflect, upon God’s handiwork.
And He it is Who spread out, the earth of the body, and set therein the firm mountains, of the bones, and the rivers of the veins, and of all, of the fruits of character traits and perceptibles, He has made in it a pair, two, that is, two kinds that are opposites, such as munificence and niggardliness, modesty and shamelessness, licentiousness and chastity, cowardice and valour, injustice and justice and their like, as well as [opposing pairs such as] black and white, sweet and bitter, wholesome and putrid, heat and cold, smooth and rough and their like. He covers, with the night of the darkness of corporeal things the daylight of spiritual things, as in the covering of the spiritual faculties with their instruments and the spirit with the body. Surely in that are signs for a people who reflect, on the handiwork of God and the harmonious correspondence between His two worlds, the minor one and the major one.
After Allah mentioned the higher worlds, He started asserting His power, wisdom and control over the lower parts of the world. Allah said,
وَهُوَ الَّذِى مَدَّ الاٌّرْضَ
(And it is He Who spread out the earth) made it spacious in length and width. Allah has placed on the earth firm mountains and made rivers, springs and water streams run through it, so that the various kinds of fruits and plants of every color, shape, taste and scent are watered with this water,
مِن كُلٍّ زَوْجَيْنِ اثْنَيْنِ
(and of every kind of fruit He made Zawjayn Ithnayn.), two types from every kind of fruit,
يُغْشِى الَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ
(He brings the night as a cover over the day.) Allah made the day and night pursue each other, when one is about to depart, the other overcomes it, and vice versa. Allah controls time just as He controls space and matter,
إِنَّ فِى ذلِكَ لآيَـتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ
(Verily, in these things, there are Ayat for people who reflect.) who reflect on Allah's signs and the evidences of His wisdom. Allah said,
وَفِى الاٌّرْضِ قِطَعٌ مُّتَجَـوِرَتٌ
(And in the earth are neighboring tracts, ) Meaning, next to each other, some of them are fertile and produce what benefits people, while others are dead, salty and do not produce anything. This meaning was collected from Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ad-Dahhak and several others. This also covers the various colors and types of diverse areas on the earth; some red, some white, or yellow, or black, some are stony, or flat, or sandy, or thick, or thin, all made to neighbor each other while preserving their own qualities. All this indicates the existence of the Creator Who does what He wills, there is no deity or lord except Him. Allah said next,
وَجَنَّـتٌ مِّنْ أَعْنَـبٍ وَزَرْعٌ وَنَخِيلٌ
(and gardens of vines, and green crops (fields), and date palms...) Allah's statement, next,
صِنْوَنٌ وَغَيْرُ صِنْوَنٍ
(Sinwanun wa (or) Ghayru Sinwan.) `Sinwan' means, growing into two or three from a single stem, such as figs, pomegranate and dates. `Ghayru Sinwan' means, having one stem for every tree, as is the case with most plants. From this meaning, the paternal uncle is called one's `Sinw' of his father. There is an authentic Hadith that states that the Messenger of Allah said to `Umar bin Al-Khattab,
(The Dagal, the Persian, the sweet, the bitter...'') At-Tirmidhi collected this Hadith and said, "Hasan Gharib.'' Therefore, there are differences between plants and fruits with regards to shape, color, taste, scent, blossoms and the shape of their leaves. There are plants that are very sweet or sour, bitter or mild, fresh; some plants have a combination of these attributes, and the taste then changes and becomes another taste, by Allah's will. There is also some that are yellow in color, or red, or white, or black, or blue, and the same can be said about their flowers; and all these variances and complex diversities are watered by the same water. Surely, in this there are signs for those who have sound reasoning, and surely, all this indicates the existence of the Creator Who does what He wills and Whose power made distinctions between various things and created them as He wills. So Allah said,
إِنَّ فِى ذلِكَ لآيَـتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ
(Verily, in these things there are Ayat for the people who understand.)
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
After citing some heavenly Signs in support of the doctrines of Tauhid and the Hereafter, a few Signs are being cited from the earth for the same purpose. Briefly the following are the arguments for Tauhid, Resurrection and Accountability:
(1) Tauhid: The fact that the earth is closely connected with the heavenly bodies (which help create life on it), and the fact that the mountains and the rivers are so inter-related with that life are clear proofs that all these things have not been created by separate and different gods nor are being governed, by gods with independent powers and authorities. Had it been so, there could not have been so much harmony, congruity, accord and unity of purpose among them; nor could these relationships have continued for such a long time. For it is quite obvious that if there had not been One All-Powerful and All-Wise Allah, it could not have been possible and practicable for different gods to sit together and evolve out such a harmonious system of the universe without any discord or conflict between its myriads of bodies.
(2) Resurrection: This wonderful planet, the earth, is itself a great proof that its Creator is All-Powerful and can, therefore, raise the dead whenever He will. For it is floating in space round the sun and it has high mountains fixed in it and has large rivers flowing on its surface: it produces countless fruit-bearing trees and it brings about the cycles of the day and the night with precise regularity.
All these things bear witness to the boundless power of its Creator. It would, therefore, be sheer folly to doubt that such All-Powerful Creator is incapable of raising mankind to life after death.
(3) Accountability: The earth, with all its wonderful and purposeful signs, is a clear evidence of the fact that its Creator is All-Wise. Therefore it cannot even be imagined that He has created man, His noblest creation, without any purpose. Just as His wisdom is apparent from the structure of the earth, its mountains, its rivers, the pairs of its trees and fruits, its night and day, so it is quite obvious that it has not been made the habitation of man without any purpose, nor will it be brought to naught without the fulfillment of that purpose. Clearly mankind shall be accountable to its Creator for the fulfillment of that Divine purpose.