Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(O my people! This is the camel of Allah, a token unto you) a sign unto you, (so suffer her) leave her (to feed in Allah's earth) in the wilderness: you do not have to feed her, (and touch her not with harm) do not kill her (lest a near torment seize you) after three days.
And, O my people, this is the she-camel of God, a sign for you (āyatan is a circumstantial qualifier operated by the demonstrative noun [hādhihi, ‘this’]). Leave her to eat in God’s earth and do not cause her any harm, [by] hamstringing [her], lest you be seized by a near chastisement’, if you do hamstring her.
And, O my people, this is the she-camel of God: the interpretation of the she-camel has already been given. As for the deliverance of Ṣāliḥ and those with them, according to the mentioned interpretation, this is like the deliverance of Jesus, peace be upon him, from crucifixion, as related in His words And yet they did not slay him nor did they crucify him but for them he was given the resemblance [Q. 4:157] and His words and they did not slay him for certain. Nay, God raised him up to Him [Q. 4:157-8], similar to the deliverance of the believing man from among Pharaoh's folk [cf. Q. 40:28], according to what He has alluded to in His words So God shielded him from the evils of what they had plotted [Q. 40:45].
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
This is the answer to the preceding question: "If I disobey Allah by discarding the Guidance I have received from Him in order to please you, you cannot defend me against Him. You will rather add to the intensity of my guilt of disobedience to Him. Thus I shall incur additional punishment from Him for misleading you instead of showing the Right Way for which I had been sent to you.