Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
And from his narration on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that he said about the interpretation of Allah's saying (By the snorting courses): '(By the snorting courses) the Prophet (pbuh) had sent a military expedition to Banu Kinanah and was quite aggrieved because he did not hear their news for a while. Allah therefore informed His Prophet about this expedition in the form of an oath, saying (By the snorting courses) He says: Allah swears by the horses of the conquerors, whose breaths are audible because of the enemies,
Swearing by the Horses of War about the Ungratefulness of Man and His Zeal for Wealth
Allah swears by the horses when they are made to gallop into battle in His path (i.e., Jihad), and thus they run and pant, which is the sound that is heard from the horse when it runs.
(Striking sparks of fire.) meaning, the striking of their hooves on the rocks, which causes sparks of fire to fly from them.
(And scouring to the raid at dawn.) meaning, the raid that is carried out in the early morning time. This is just as the Messenger of Allah used to perform raids in the early morning. He would wait to see if he heard the Adhan (call to prayer) from the people. If he heard it he would leave them alone, and if he didn't hear it he would attack. Then Allah says,
فَأَثَرْنَ بِهِ نَقْعاً
(And raise the dust in clouds the while.) meaning, dust at the place of the battle with the horses.
فَوَسَطْنَ بِهِ جَمْعاً
(And penetrating forthwith as one into the midst.) means, then are all in the middle of that spot, together. Allah's saying;
(And scouring to the raid at dawn.) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and Qatadah, all said, "This means the invasion of the horses in the morning in the way of Allah.'' And His statement,
فَأَثَرْنَ بِهِ نَقْعاً
(And raise the dust in clouds the while.) This is the place in which the attack takes place. The dust is stirred up by it. And His statement,
فَوَسَطْنَ بِهِ جَمْعاً
(And penetrating forthwith as one into the midst.) Al-`Awfi narrated from Ibn `Abbas, `Ata, `Ikrimah, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak that they all said, "This means into the midst of the disbelieving enemy.'' Concerning Allah's statement,
إِنَّ الإِنسَـنَ لِرَبِّهِ لَكَنُودٌ
(Verily, man is ungrateful (Kanud) to his Lord.) This is the subject what is being sworn about, and it means that he (man) is ungrateful for the favors of His Lord and he rejects them. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Abu Al-Jawza', Abu Al-`Aliyah, Abu Ad-Duha, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Qays, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Ibn Zayd all said, "Al-Kanud means ungrateful.'' Al-Hasan said, "Al-Kanud is the one who counts the calamities (that befall him) and he forgets Allah's favors.''
Concerning Allah's statement,
وَإِنَّهُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ لَشَهِيدٌ
(And to that He bears witness.) Qatadah and Sufyan Ath-Thawri both said, "And indeed Allah is a witness to that.'' It is also possible that the pronoun (He) could be referring to man. This was said by Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi. Thus, its meaning would be that man is a witness himself to the fact that he is ungrateful. This is obvious in his condition, meaning this is apparent from his statements and deeds. This is as Allah says,
(It is not for the idolators, to maintain the Masajid of Allah, while they witness disbelief against themselves.) (9:17) Allah said;
وَإِنَّهُ لِحُبِّ الْخَيْرِ لَشَدِيدٌ
(And verily, he is violent in the love of wealth.) meaning, and indeed in his love of the good, which is wealth, he is severe. There are two opinions concerning this. One of them is that it means that he is severe. There are two opinions concerning this. One of them is that it means that he is severe in his love of wealth. The other view is that it means he is covetous and stingy due to the love of wealth. However, both views are correct.
The Threat about the Hereafter
Then Allah encourages abstinence from worldly things and striving for the Hereafter, and He informs of what the situation will be after this present condition, and what man will face of horrors. He says,
(Knows he not that when the contents of the graves are poured forth) meaning, the dead that are in it will be brought out.
وَحُصِّلَ مَا فِى الصُّدُورِ
(And that which is in the breasts shall be made known) Ibn `Abbas and others have said, "This means what was in their souls would be exposed and made apparent.''
إِنَّ رَبَّهُم بِهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ لَّخَبِيرٌ
(Verily, that Day their Lord will be Well-Acquainted with them.) meaning, He knows all of that they used to do, and He will compensate them for it with the most deserving reward. He does not do even the slightest amount of injustice. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-`Adiyat, and all praise and thanks are due to Allah.
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
There is no indication in the words of the verse to show whether "those who run" imply the horses; only the word waI-`Adiyat (by, those who run) has been used. That is why the commentators have disputed as to what is implied by "those who run"..One section of the Companions and their immediate successors has been to think that it implies the horses; another section says that it implies the camels. But since the peculiar sound called dabh is produced only by the panting, snorting horses, and the following verses also in which mention has been made of striking sparks and raiding a settlement early at dawn and raising clouds of dust, apply only to the horses, most scholars are of the opinion that horses are meant. Ibn Jarir says: "Of the two views this view is preferable that by "those who run" horses are implied, for the camel does not breathe hard in running, it is the horse which does so, and Allah has said: "By those runners which pant and breathe hard in running." Imam Razi ays: "The words of these verses proclaim that horses are meant, for the sound of dabh (panting breath) is only produced by the horses, and the act of striking sparks of fire with the hoofs too is associated with the horses, and, likewise, mounting of a raid early at. dawn is easier by means of the horses than by other animals."
"Dashing off sparks" indicates that the horses run in the dead of night, for the sparks struck by their hoofs become conspicuous only at night.
The practice among the Arabs was that when they had to mount a raid on a settlement, they marched out in the night so as to take the enemy by surprise; then they would launch a sudden attack early. in the morning so that everything became visible in the light of day, and at the same tune it did not become so bright that the victim could notice their movement from a distance and be ready to meet the offensive.
This is for which an oath has been sworn by the horses, which run with panting breath and dash off sparks at night, then raising dust rush to assault a settlement at dawn and penetrate into the enemy host. It is astonishing to note that a large number of the commentators have taken these horses to imply the horses of the Muslim fighters and the enemy host to imply the host of disbelievers, whereas the oath has been sworn to impress the point that "man is highly ungrateful to his Lord". Now, obviously, in the course of Jihad for the sake of Allah, the rushing forth of the fighters' horses and their assaulting a host of disbelievers all of a sudden, does not at all support the point that man is ungrateful to his Lord, nor the following sentences, viz. "man himself is a witness to it, and he. loves the worldly wealth with all his heart," apply to the people who go out to fight in the cause of Allah. Therefore, one will have to admit that the oaths sworn in the first five verses of this Sarah, refer, in fact, to the general bloodshed, loot and plunder prevalent in Arabia at that time. In the pre-Islamic days of ignorance the night was a very dreadful thing: in it the people of every tribe and settlement apprehended the danger of a sudden attack by some unknown enemy, and when the light of day appeared they would heave a sigh of relief that the night had passed in peace. The tribes did not fight only retaliatory wars but different tribes also raided others in order to deprive them of their worldly goods and herds and to capture their women and children to be made slaves. This kind of tyranny and plunder was carried opt mostly by means of the horses, which Allah is presenting here as an argument for the fact that man is ungrateful to his Lord. That is the powers which man is employing for fighting, shedding blood and plundering had not been given him by God for this purpose. Therefore this indeed is sheer ingratitude that the resources granted by Allah and the power given by Him should be used for causing chaos and corruption to spread in the earth. which Allah abhors.
That is his own conscience and his own deeds are a witness to it; then there are many disbelievers also who by their own tongue express their ingratitude openly for they do not even believe that God exists to say nothing of acknowledging His blessings for which they may have to render gratitude to Him.
Literally "He is most ardent in the love of khair". But the word khair is not only used for goodness and virtue in Arabic but also for worldly wealth. In Surah Baqarah: 180, khair has been used in the meaning of worldly wealth. The context itself shows where khair has been used in the sense of goodness and where in that of worldly goods. The context of this verse clearly shows that here khair means worldly wealth and not virtue and goodness. For about the man who is ungrateful to his Lord and who by his conduct is himself testifying to his ingratitude it cannot be said that he is very ardent in the love of goodness and virtue.
That is, the dead men will be raised back as living men from whatever state and wherever they would be lying buried in the earth.
That is all the intentions aims and objects, ideas and thoughts and the motives behind acts and deeds that lie hidden in the hearts will be exposed and examined in.order to sort out the good from the evil. In other words judgment will not be passed only on the apparent and superficial as to what a man practically did but the secrets hidden in the hearts also will be brought out to see what were the intentions and motives under which a man did what he did. If man only considers this he cannot help admitting that real and complete justice cannot be done anywhere except in the Court of God. Secular laws of the world also admit in principle that a person should not be punished merely on the basis of his apparent act but his motive for so acting also should be seen and examined. But no court of the world has the means by which it may accurately as certain the motive and intention. This can be done only by God: He alone can examine the underlying motives behind every apparent act of man as well as take the decision as to what reward or punishment he deserves. Then, as is evident from the words of the verse, this judgment will not be passed merely on the basis of the knowledge which Allah already has about the intentions and motives of the hearts, but on Resurrection Day these secrets will be exposed and brought out openly before the people and after a thorough scrutiny in the Court it will be shown what was the good in it and what was the evil. That is why the words hussila ma fis-sudur have been used. Tahsil means to bring out something in the open, and to sort out different things from one another. Thus, the use of tahsil concerning hidden secrets of the hearts contains both the meanings: to expose them and to sort out the good from the evil. This same theme has been expressed in Surah At-Tariq, thus: "The Day the hidden secrets are held to scrutiny." (v. 9)
That is, He will be knowing full well who is who, and what punishment or reward he deserves.
(By the snorting courses…) [100:1-11]. Muqatil said: “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, sent a military expedition to a clan of Banu Kinanah and appointed al-Mundhir ibn ‘Amr al-Ansari as its leader. When their news was late to come, the hypocrites said: ‘They have all been killed’, and so Allah, exalted is He, gave news about this expedition and revealed (By the snorting courses) meaning the horses of that expedition”. ‘Abd al-Ghafir ibn Muhammad al-Farisi informed us> Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Basti> Muhammad ibn Makki> Ishaq ibn Ibrahim> Ahmad ibn ‘Abdah> Hafs ibn Jami‘> Simak> ‘Ikrimah> Ibn ‘Abbas who related that the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, sent a cavalry in a mission but did not receive any news from them a month after they had left. And so it was revealed (By the snorting courses) i.e. the horses snorting with their nostrils.