The Quran

Commentaries for 1.4

Al Fatiha (The opening) - الفاتحة

1.4 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(Owner of the Day of Judgement) the Arbitrator on the Day of Judgement which is the Day of Reckoning and settlement of disputes between created beings, i.e. the Day when people are judged according to their deeds; there is no judge save Him.
1.4 Asrar - Kashf Al-Asrar
The owner of the Day of Doom.
This alludes to the permanence of the kingship of unity and the subsistence of the all-compellingness of the divinity. In other words, the day of every king's empire ends and disappears, his kingship finishes, and his state changes. But God's kingship is permanent, today and tomorrow, for it never comes to an end or disappears. In the two worlds nothing and no one is outside of His kingship and ruling power. No one has a kingship like His kingship. Today He is the Lord of the Worlds and tomorrow the Owner of the Day of Doom, and none of the creatures is like this.
How wonderful! How can the servant do anything? For in the two worlds, ownership and kingship are God's, without associate, partner, requirement, or need. So where is the servant's choice? He who has no ownership has no ruling power. And thy Lord creates what He wants and chooses. They have no choice [28:68].
It has been said that doom here is reckoning and reward. He is saying, “The owner and caretaker of calling the servants to account am I.” Thus no one else will become aware of the servants' defects, lest they be shamed. Even though calling to account is itself to drive home severity, not lifting the veil during the accounting is nothing but generosity. He wants to show generosity after He drives home severity. This is the custom of God: Whenever he strikes a blow of severity, He places on it the balm of generosity.
The Pir of the Tariqah said, “Tomorrow at the standing place of calling to account, if I have anything and there is place to speak, I will say, 'Lord God, of the three things that I have, look at one of them: First, a prostration that has never wanted anything but a heart for You; second, an assent such that whatever You said, I said was true; third, a spirit and heart that have never wanted anything but You ever since the wind of generosity rose up.'”
I have no wish but serving Your faceI want no breath without You.
1.4 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
Master of the Day of Judgement: that is, [the day of] requite, the Day of Resurrection. The reason for the specific mention [of the Day of Judgement] is that the mastery of none shall appear on that Day except that of God, may He be exalted, as is indicated by [God’s words] ‘Whose is the Kingdom today?’ ‘God’s’ [Q. 40:16] (if one reads it mālik [as opposed to malik], then this signifies that He has possession of the entire affair on the Day of Resurrection, or else that He is ever described by this [expression], in the same way as [He is described as] ‘Forgiver of sin’ (ghāfir al-dhanb). Thus, one can validly take it as an adjective of a definite noun).
1.4 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
Indicating Sovereignty on the Day of Judgment
Allah mentioned His sovereignty of the Day of Resurrection, but this does not negate His sovereignty over all other things. For Allah mentioned that He is the Lord of existence, including this earthly life and the Hereafter. Allah only mentioned the Day of Recompense here because on that Day, no one except Him will be able to claim ownership of anything whatsoever. On that Day, no one will be allowed to speak without His permission. Similarly, Allah said,
يَوْمَ يَقُومُ الرُّوحُ وَالْمَلَـئِكَةُ صَفّاً لاَّ يَتَكَلَّمُونَ إِلاَّ مَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ الرَّحْمَـنُ وَقَالَ صَوَاباً
(The Day that Ar-Ruh (Jibril (Gabriel) or another angel) and the angels will stand forth in rows, they will not speak except him whom the Most Gracious (Allah) allows, and he will speak what is right.) (78:38),
وَخَشَعَتِ الأَصْوَاتُ لِلرَّحْمَـنِ فَلاَ تَسْمَعُ إِلاَّ هَمْساً
(And all voices will be humbled for the Most Gracious (Allah), and nothing shall you hear but the low voice of their footsteps.)(20:108), and,
يَوْمَ يَأْتِ لاَ تَكَلَّمُ نَفْسٌ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِ فَمِنْهُمْ شَقِىٌّ وَسَعِيدٌ
(On the Day when it comes, no person shall speak except by His (Allah's) leave. Some among them will be wretched and (others) blessed) (11:105).
Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas commented, "Allah says, `On that Day, no one owns anything that they used to own in the world.'''
The Meaning of Yawm Ad-Din
Ibn `Abbas said, "Yawm Ad-Din is the Day of Recompense for the creatures, meaning the Day of Judgment. On that Day, Allah will reckon the creation for their deeds, evil for evil, good for good, except for those whom He pardons.'' In addition, several other Companions, Tabi`in and scholars of the Salaf, said similarly, for this meaning is apparent and clear from the Ayah.
Allah is Al-Malik (King or Owner)
Allah is the True Owner (Malik) (of everything and everyone). Allah said,
هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِى لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْمَلِكُ الْقُدُّوسُ السَّلَـمُ
(He is Allah, beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa, the King, the Holy, the One free from all defects) (59:23).
Also, the Two Sahihs recorded Abu Hurayrah saying that the Prophet said,
«أَخْنَعُ اسْمٍ عِنْدَ اللهِ رَجُلٌ تَسَمَّى بِمَلِكِ الْأَمْلَاكِ وَلَا مَالِكَ إِلَّا اللهُ»
(The most despicable name to Allah is a person who calls himself the king of kings, while there are no owners except Allah.)
Also the Two Sahihs recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,
«يَقْبِضُ اللهُ الْأَرْضَ وَيَطْوِي السَّمَاءَ بِيَمِينِهِ ثُمَّ يَقُولُ: أَنَا الْمَلِكُ، أَيْنَ مُلُوكُ الْأَرْضِ؟ أَيْنَ الْجَبَّارُونَ؟ أَيْنَ الْمُتَكَبِّرُونَ؟»
((On the Day of Judgement) Allah will grasp the earth and fold up the heavens with His Right Hand and proclaim, 'I Am the King! Where are the kings of the earth Where are the tyrants Where are the arrogant')
Also, in the the Glorious Qur'an;
لِّمَنِ الْمُلْكُ الْيَوْمَ لِلَّهِ الْوَحِدِ الْقَهَّارِ
(Whose is the kingdom this Day Allah's, the One, the Irresistible.)(40:16).
As for calling someone other than Allah a king in this life, 3-24). :23NNA
r-Rahman (the Most Gracious), Ar-Rahim (the Most Merciful)) We explained these Names in the Basmalah. Al-Qurtubi said, "Allah has described Himself by `Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim' after saying `the Lord of the Alamin', so His statement here includes a warning, and then an encouragement. Similarly, Allah said, حRNA ? Allah is Al-Malik (King or Owner)
Allah is the True Owner (Malik) (of everything and everyone). Allah said,
هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِى لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْمَلِكُ الْقُدُّوسُ السَّلَـمُ
(He is Allah, beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa, the King, the Holy, the One free from all defects) (59:23).
Also, the Two Sahihs recorded Abu Hurayrah saying that the Prophet said,
«أَخْنَعُ اسْمٍ عِنْدَ اللهِ رَجُلٌ تَسَمَّى بِمَلِكِ الْأَمْلَاكِ وَلَا مَالِكَ إِلَّا اللهُ»
(The most despicable name to Allah is a person who calls himself the king of kings, while there are no owners except Allah.)
Also the Two Sahihs recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,
«يَقْبِضُ اللهُ الْأَرْضَ وَيَطْوِي السَّمَاءَ بِيَمِينِهِ ثُمَّ يَقُولُ: أَنَا الْمَلِكُ، أَيْنَ مُلُوكُ الْأَرْضِ؟ أَيْنَ الْجَبَّارُونَ؟ أَيْنَ الْمُتَكَبِّرُونَ؟»
((On the Day of Judgement) Allah will grasp the earth and fold up the heavens with His Right Hand and proclaim, 'I Am the King! Where are the kings of the earth Where are the tyrants Where are the arrogant')
Also, in the the Glorious Qur'an;
لِّمَنِ الْمُلْكُ الْيَوْمَ لِلَّهِ الْوَحِدِ الْقَهَّارِ
(Whose is the kingdom this Day Allah's, the One, the Irresistible.)(40:16).
As for calling someone other than Allah a king in this life, then it is done as a figure of speech. For instance, Allah said,
إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ بَعَثَ لَكُمْ طَالُوتَ مَلِكًا
(Indeed Allah appointed Talut (Saul) as a king over you.) (2:247),
وَكَانَ وَرَآءَهُم مَّلِكٌ
(As there was a king behind them)(18:79), and,
إِذْ جَعَلَ فِيكُمْ أَنْبِيَآءَ وَجَعَلَكُمْ مُّلُوكاً
When He made Prophets among you, and made you kings )5:20(.
Also, the Two Sahihs recorded,
«مِثْلُ الْمُلُوكِ عَلَى الْأَسِرَّةِ»
(Just like kings reclining on their thrones)
The Meaning of Ad-Din
Ad-Din means the reckoning, the reward or punishment. Similarly, Allah said,
يَوْمَئِذٍ يُوَفِّيهِمُ اللَّهُ دِينَهُمُ الْحَقَّ
(On that Day Allah will pay them the (Dinahum) recompense (of their deeds) in full) (24:25), and,
أَءِنَّا لَمَدِينُونَ
(Shall we indeed (be raised up) to receive reward or punishment (according to our deeds)) (37:53). A Hadith stated,
«الْكَيِّسُ مَنْ دَانَ نَفْسَهُ وَعَمِلَ لِمَا بَعْدَ الْمَوتِ»
(The wise person is he who reckons himself and works for (his life) after death.) meaning, he holds himself accountable. Also, `Umar said, "Hold yourself accountable before you are held accountable, weigh yourselves before you are weighed, and be prepared for the biggest gathering before He Whose knowledge encompasses your deeds,
يَوْمَئِذٍ تُعْرَضُونَ لاَ تَخْفَى مِنكُمْ خَافِيَةٌ
(That Day shall you be brought to Judgement, not a secret of yours will be hidden) (69:18).''
1.4-7 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
The Arabic word ibadat is used in three senses: (a)worship and devotion, (b) submission and obedience, (c) subjection and servitude. Here it implies all the three, that is, We are Thy worshipers, Thy subjects and Thy slaves and We keep these relations with Thee and Thee alone and "We make none else the object of our worship in all the three senses."
It means, We ask for Thy help because we know that Thou art the Lord of the whole Universe and Thou hast all powers and Thou art the Master of every thing. Therefore we turn to Thee for help for the fulfillment of our needs and requirements.
That is, "Show us that way which may lead us aright in every walk of life and keep us absolutely free from errors and evil consequences and bring us success in the end.", This is the request which the servant of Allah makes to Him when he begins the study of the Qur'an. He prays to Him to guide him in every walk of life and save him from the labyrinths of doubt and uncertainty, which result from the lack of true knowledge. The servant also requests the Master to show him the right and the straight way of life from among the many by-paths and crooked ways.
The straight way for which we are praying is the way which has always been followed by the people favored by Thee and which has always brought Thy favors and blessings.
This is to show that the favored people are not those who go astray and incur the wrath of Allah, though apparently they might be enjoying the transitory good things of life. The really favored people are those who receive blessings on account of their righteous living. From this it also becomes clear that by favors are meant those real and permanent rewards, which result from righteous living and from winning the pleasure of Allah, and not those transitory good things of life which have been enjoyed even by the tyrants and worshipers of mammon and which are being enjoyed even today by all sorts of evildoers who have gone astray from the straight way.
1.4 Qushairi - Al-Qushairi
Master of the Day of Judgment The master mālik is the one who has sovereignty mulk. The sovereignty of the Real سبحانه وتعالى is His power over creating ibdāʿ. King malik is a more intensive form than master mālik-He سبحانه is both King and Master and sovereignty is His. Just as there is no god but He there is none with the power to create except Him. He is alone in His divinity and singular in His sovereignty. He rules the souls of His worshipers nufūs al-ʿābidīn for He has granted agency to them ṣarrafahā in His service. He rules the hearts of those with deeper knowledge qulūb al-ʿārifīn for He honors them sharrafahā with knowledge of Him. He rules the souls of the seekers nufūs al-qāṣidīn for He holds them in his thrall tayyamahā. He rules the hearts of the ecstatics qulūb al-wājidīn for He bewilders them hayyamahā. He rules the bodily forms ashbāḥ of those who worship Him and He is kind to them with his gifts and favors. He rules the spirits arwāḥ of those whom He loves and He unveils the attribute of His majesty to them and the quality of His beauty. He holds the reins of the masters who profess [His] unity: He turns them about wherever He wills as He wills and He grants them success wherever He wills as He wills. He does not entrust them to themselves for even a moment. He does not transfer power to them in their affair for even the shortest period of time. He is for them in place of themselves and He has annihilated them from themselves to Him. His beneficence rules the hearts of the worshipers and they desire His gifts. His authority rules the hearts of those who declare unity and they are content with His abiding. He teaches the masters who profess [His] unity that He is their Master mālik and their own choosing ikhtiyār drops away from them. They come to know that the servant has no ownership. The one who has no ownership has no power of decision ḥukm and the one who has no power of decision has no free choice. For them there is no turning away iʿrāḌ from obedience to Him no resistance iʿtirāḌ to His decision no working against muʿāraḌa His choosing and no move to taʿarruḌ oppose Him.
The Day of Judgment is the day of recompense and resurrection the day of reckoning and gathering. The Real سبحانه وتعالى repays each as He wishes and on the day of reckoning there are those who are accepted by His favor and not for their acts and those who are rejected by His decision and not for their sins. For the enemies He settles the accounts and then punishes them. For the friends He chides them in a mild way and then draws them close: A people who when they vanquished us were generous in letting us go.
1.4 Tustari - Al-Tustari
The Master of the Day of Judgement:That is, the Day of Reckoning.
1.1-7 Wahidi - Asbab Al-Nuzul by Al-Wahidi
There is some scholarly disagreement concerning this Surah [i.e. concerning where it was revealed]; the majority is however of the opinion that it was revealed in Mecca, one among the first Surahs of the Qur'an to be revealed. Abu 'Uthman Sa'id ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Zahid informed us> his grandfather>Abu 'Amr al-Hiri> Ibrahim ibn al-Harith and 'Ali ibn Sahl ibn al-Mughirah who said: Yahya ibn Abi Bukayr informed us> Isra'il> Abu Ishaq> Abu Maysarah ['Amr ibn Shurahbil] who said: “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, whenever he went out, used to hear someone calling him 'O Muhammad!' And whenever he heard this, he used to flee. Waraqah ibn Nawfal advised the Prophet to remain in his place when the caller calls him so that he hears what he has to tell him. And so when he went out, he heard the calling: 'O Muhammad!' He said: 'Here I am! At your service!' The caller said: 'Say: I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah'. Then he said: 'Say (Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Owner of the Day of Judgement…)' and he read until the end of the Opening of the Book”. This is also the opinion of 'Ali ibn Abi Talib. Abu Ishaq Ahmad ibn Muhammad, the Qur'anic commentator, informed us>al-Hasan ibn Ja'far, the commentator who said: Abu'l-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Mahmud al-Marwazi> 'Abd Allah ibn Mahmud al-Sa'di> Abu Yahya al-Qasri> Marwan ibn Mu'awiyah> al-'Ala' ibn al-Musayyab> al-Fudayl ibn 'Amr> 'Ali ibn Abi Talib who said: “The Opening of the Book was revealed in Mecca from a treasure beneath the divine Throne”. And through the same chain of transmission> al-Sa'di who said: 'Amr ibn Salih informed us> his father> al-Kalbi> Abu Salih> ibn 'Abbas who said: “The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, stood up once in Mecca and said: 'In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds'. The people of Quraysh said: 'May Allah strike your mouth' or something to this effect”. This was related by al-Hasan and Qatadah. But according to Mujahid, the Opening of the Book was revealed in Medina. About this opinion al-Husayn ibn al-Fadl said: “Every scholar has a lapse, and this is one lapse from Mujahid, since he is the only scholar who holds this opinion while all the other scholars disagree with him”. What makes the Opening of the Book categorically a Meccan Surah is the saying of Allah, exalted is He: (We have given thee seven of the oft-repeated (verses) and the great Qur'an), i.e. the Opening of the Book. Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Nahwi informed us> Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn 'Ali al-Hiri> Ahmad ibn 'Ali ibn al-Muthanna> Yahya ibn Ayyub> Isma'il ibn Ja'far> al-'Ala'> his father> Abu Hurayrah who said: “When Ubayy ibn Ka'b finished reading the Opening of the Book to him, the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: 'By Him in Whose Hand is my soul, Allah has not revealed the like of it in the Torah, the Gospel, the Psalm or in the Qur'an. Verily, I was given the seven oft-repeated [i.e. al-Fatihah] and the great Qur'an' ”. Furthermore, there is no disagreement that Surah al-Hijr was revealed in Mecca. It follows therefore that Allah would not mention His bounty on the Prophet for giving him the Opening of the Book while in Mecca and then reveal this to him in Medina. Again, one cannot possibly say that Allah's Messenger, Allah bless him and give him peace, stayed over ten years in Mecca and prayed during this time without the Opening of the Book. This is inconceivable.