The Quran

Commentaries for 1.2

Al Fatiha (The opening) - الفاتحة

1.2 Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
And on his authority it is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, regarding the saying of Allah, Exalted is He, (Praise be to Allah): 'He says: laudation is Allah's in that He is kind towards His created beings and, hence, they praise Him. It is also said that laudation is Allah's because of His excessive blessings upon His servants whom He has guided to believe in Him. It is also said: laudation, absolute unity and godhood all belong to Allah Who has neither progeny, partner, helper nor an assistant. (Lord of the worlds): Lord of any that has a spirit and walks about on the face of the earth and also of the dwellers of heaven. It is also said that this means: the Master of the jinn and human beings. It is also said that (Lord of the worlds) means the Creator of all created beings, their Provider and the One Who changes them from one state into another.
1.2 Asrar - Kashf Al-Asrar
Praise belongs to God, the Lord of the Worlds.
This is praise of the lovingly kind God, the Creator who provides daily provisions, the One in name and mark, the Lord who is found without seeking, recognized without being found, loved without being seen. He is powerful without contrivance, self-standing without the changing of states, safe from decline in kingship, transcendent in essence and attribute, without beginning and end, described by the description of majesty and the attribute of beauty. He saw the servants' incapacity to recognize His measure and He knew that as much as they tried, they would not arrive. As much as they hoped, they would not recognize. The exalted Qur'an gives witness to their incapacity: “They measured not God with the rightful due of His measure” [6:91]. In the perfection of His exaltedness, majesty, and holiness, He made them His deputies in laudation of Him, taught them how to praise Him, and gave them permission to do so. Otherwise, who would dream of saying “Praise belongs to God” if He had not said it Himself? Who in the whole world would have the gall to say, “Praise belongs to God”?
Her own face has itself as a moon,
her own eye has itself as collyrium.
Who knows You? It is You who know You, You. No one knows You-You alone know You.
O worthy of Your own laudation, O giver of thanks for Your own bestowal! In my essence I am incapable of Your service, and with my own intellect I am incapable of recognizing Your favor. In my entire self I am incapable of joy in You, and with my own ability I am incapable of what is worthy for You. O Generous! I am seized by the pain whose cure is You. I am a servant of the laudation that is worthy of You. What do I know of You? You know. You are what You said You are-that is You.
Know also that praise is two sorts: one at seeing blessings, the other at seeing the Beneficent. That which is at seeing blessings extols Him, puts His blessings to work through obedience, and girds up the loins in thanking Him so as to increase blessings today and convey to paradise tomorrow. Thus the Prophet said, “The first to be called to the Garden will be those who fully praise God in every state.
” This is the final end of him whose praise is at seeing blessings.
As for him whose praise is at seeing the Beneficent, the tongue of his state says,
“Poverty did not drive us from the land of our kinsmenwe came to find happiness at encountering You.
“O idol, we didn't come to look at the world!”
Such a chevalier was given the wine of yearning and shamed by mutual seeing until he was annihilated from himself. He heard one, he saw one, he reached one. What did he hear? What did he see? What did he reach? He heard the remembrance of the Real, he saw the lamp of familiarity, he reached the First Day. He heard the response of gentleness, he saw the signet of friendship, and he reached the friendship of the Beginningless. The chevalier first found the mark and lost his heart, then was given access and became all heart, then saw the Friend and became lost in the heart.
The Pir of the Tariqah said, “The two worlds became lost in friendship, and friendship became lost in the Friend. Now I cannot say that it is I, nor can I say that it is He.”
I have an eye, all of it filled with the form of the Friend.
Happy am I with my eye so long as the Friend is within it.
Separating the eye from the Friend is not good-
either He's in place of the eye, or the eye itself is He.
The Lord of the Worlds, that is, the nurturer of the world's folk and the one who assigns their daily provision. The portion of one is the nurture of the body, the portion of another the nurture of the
heart. He is nurturer of one person's body with blessings, nurturer of another's heart with the Patron of Blessings. Blessings are the portion of him who does not put aside struggle in service. The mystery of the Patron of Blessings is the portion of him whose hope is to see Him. Wanting to see the Friend is the attribute of the Men. Who is more victorious than he who sees the Friend face-to-face?
Great is the aspiration of the eye that wants to see You-
is it not enough for an eye that You see him who sees You?
The nourishment of the friends' hearts, which they put to work as the nurture of their spirit and which is conveyed to them night and day from the Exalted Presence, is what was said by the world's paragon: “I spend the night at my Lord; He gives me to eat and drink.”
He did not eat delicious foods and clear, filtered drinks, and he said to others, “Beware of blessings, for servants should not be self-indulgent.”
They said to him, “Master, why do you not eat?”
He said, “I have been made so drunk by the wine of observing togetherness that I have no concern for your filtered drink.” One hundred twenty-four thousand center points of sinlessness charged forth to his secluded cell so that perhaps they might find a draft of that wine. He showed them the back of his hand, saying, “I have a moment with God embraced by no proximate angel, nor any sent prophet.” It was said, “This drink is specific to him in whose road the Greatest Signs were disclosed to his eyes, but he stayed with this courtesy: 'The eyesight did not swerve, nor did it trespass'” [53:17].
O You whose visage is everyone's gazing place!
All have fallen in the road before You.
O Venus of the cities and moon of all!
Your beauty takes away everyone's shine and rank.
The Lord of the Worlds. In other words, He nurtures the souls of the worshipers with confirmation, He nurtures the hearts of the pure with intensification, and He nurtures the states of the recognizers with tawḤīd.1 When someone has been nurtured by way of tawḤīd, what use to him is the foodstuff of the world's folk?
When a viper strikes someone's liver
they give him the antidote, not candy.
The world's folk want food, but food wants these chevaliers. ʿUtbat al-Ghulām was the student of Yazīd Hārūn. He commanded him not to eat dates. One day ʿUtba's mother went to see Yazīd Hārūn and saw him eating dates. She said, “Why then do you hold my son back from them while you eat them?”
Yazīd said, “Your son wants dates, but dates desire me. They are allowed for me, but not for him.”
The creatures of the world want paradise, but paradise wants Salmān, as in the report: “Surely the Garden is yearning for Salmān.
” Therefore He will not give him to paradise tomorrow, for He will pass him over the Fire and set him down in the Presence of Unity at the station of face-to-face vision. “The patient poor will be God's sitting companions on the Day of Resurrection.” If you want this day, come outside of yourself like a snake from its skin. Do not approve of anything for yourself but His threshold, for the settledness of the hearts of His friends is the courtyard of holiness.
You need to have ʿAdhrā's face and to sit at Wāmiq's door,
you need to have Abū Dardā's passion and go forth like Salmān. [DS 482]
1.2 Jalal - Al-Jalalayn
Praise be to God, is a predicate of a nominal clause, the content of which is intended to extol God [by stating that]: He possesses the praise of all creatures, or that He [alone] deserves their praise. God is a proper noun for the One truly worthy of worship; Lord of all Worlds, that is, [He is] the One Who owns all of creation: humans, jinn, angels, animals and others as well, each of which may be referred to as a ‘world’; one says ‘the world of men’, or ‘world of the jinn’ etc. This plural form with the yā’ and the nūn [sc. ‘ālamīn] is used to denote, predominantly, cognizant beings (ūlū ‘ilm). The expression [‘ālamīn] relates to [the term] ‘sign’ (‘alāma), since it is an indication of the One that created it.
1.2 Kashani - Kashani
Praise be to God; Lord of all Worlds, to the end of the sūra: 'praise' in actions and utterances of the moment (lisān al-ḥāl) is the manifestation (ẓuhūr) of perfections and the actualisation (ḥuṣūl) of the ends (ghāyāt) of things, since these are opening laudations and marvelous eulogies by the one granting them in accordance with what is due to that [object of eulogy]. For all existents, on account of their specificity and specific qualities and orientation towards their end-goals, and by the bringing forth of their perfections [sc. perfected states] from the space of potentiality into actuality, are proclaimers of [His] glory and praisers, as God, exalted be He, says: and there is not a thing but proclaims His praise [Q. 17:44]. Their proclamation of His glory is the declaration that He is above the need for any associate, [exalted above] the attributes of deficiency (naqṣ) and incapacity, [and this] by their very dependence on Him and their being indicators of His Oneness and His power. As for their praise [of Him], this is the manifesting of their derivative perfections and their being the loci of the manifestation of those attributes of majesty and beauty. His Essence is singled out [for praise] on account of His being the principle (mabdaÌ) of all things, and [on account of] His preservation and management of these, which constitute the very signification of [His] lordship of all worlds. In other words [praise be] to every knowable of the knowledge of God [being that] by which He is known, as in the case of the seal and what it seals and the mould and what is moulded in it. The construction [of ʿālam] is in the sound plural [ʿālamīn] because it subsumes the signification of 'knowledge' (ʿilm), or on account of the prevalence [of cognizant beings in these worlds]. In the face of [His] bestowing of good generally and specifically, that is, outward graces such as health and provision, and inner [graces] such as gnosis (maʿrifa) and knowledge (ʿilm); and on account of His being the ultimate end [of all things], which is the [true] signification of [His being] master of [all] things on the Day of Judgement, since in reality the only one who will requite will be the worshipped One, to whom all mastership returns at the time of requital either through the rewarding of everlasting grace in place of ephemeral [grace] upon the disengagement from this [latter] by means of renunciation and the self-disclosures of actions upon the servant's wrenching himself away from his actions and the replacement of his attributes with His attributes upon effacement (maḥw) and his subsistence (baqāÌ) through His Essence, and His gift to him of veridical [divine] existence (wujūd ḥaqqānī), upon his annihilation (fanāÌ).
To Him and His what-ness, exalted be He, pre-eternally and sempiternally, as befits Him in His Essence at the beginning stage and at the end stage and in-between the two at the stage of union (maqām al-jamʿ), belongs all praise by the differentiated tongues, absolutely. For He is the One praising and the One praised at [the level of] differentiation and [at the level of] union, the Worshipper and the Worshipped, whether at the starting point and or at the end. When He discloses Himself to His servants in His words through His attributes, they witness Him in His greatness and resplendence and in His perfect power and majesty, and they address Him in word and deed ascribing worship to Him [alone] and seeking assistance from Him [alone], for they find none to be worshipped other than Him and [find that] there is no might or power in anyone except through Him. If they stand present [at this witnessing] their motions and their stillness would all constitute worship of Him and through Him, and they would 'maintain their prayers' [cf. Q. 70:23], supplicating with the tongue of love witnessing as they are His beauty from every aspect and in every aspect.
1.2 Kathir - Ibn Al Kathir
The Meaning of Al-Hamd
Abu Ja`far bin Jarir said, "The meaning of
الْحَمْدُ للَّهِ
(Al-Hamdu Lillah) (all praise and thanks be to Allah) is: all thanks are due purely to Allah, alone, not any of the objects that are being worshipped instead of Him, nor any of His creation. These thanks are due to Allah's innumerable favors and bounties, that only He knows the amount of. Allah's bounties include creating the tools that help the creation worship Him, the physical bodies with which they are able to implement His commands, the sustenance that He provides them in this life, and the comfortable life He has granted them, without anything or anyone compelling Him to do so. Allah also warned His creation and alerted them about the means and methods with which they can earn eternal dwelling in the residence of everlasting happiness. All thanks and praise are due to Allah for these favors from beginning to end.''
Further, Ibn Jarir commented on the Ayah,
الْحَمْدُ للَّهِ
(Al-Hamdu Lillah), that it means, "A praise that Allah praised Himself with, indicating to His servants that they too should praise Him, as if Allah had said, `Say: All thanks and praise is due to Allah.' It was said that the statement,
الْحَمْدُ للَّهِ
(All praise and thanks be to Allah), entails praising Allah by mentioning His most beautiful Names and most honorable Attributes. When one proclaims, `All thanks are due to Allah,' he will be thanking Him for His favors and bounties.''
The Difference between Praise and Thanks
Hamd is more general, in that it is a statement of praise for one's characteristics, or for what he has done. Thanks are given for what was done, not merely for characteristics.
The Statements of the Salaf about Al-Hamd
Hafs mentioned that `Umar said to `Ali, "We know La ilaha illallah, Subhan Allah and Allahu Akbar. What about Al-Hamdu Lillah'' `Ali said, "A statement that Allah liked for Himself, was pleased with for Himself and He likes that it be repeated.'' Also, Ibn `Abbas said, "Al-Hamdu Lillah is the statement of appreciation. When the servant says Al-Hamdu Lillah, Allah says, `My servant has praised Me.'' Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this Hadith.
The Virtues of Al-Hamd
Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded that Al-Aswad bin Sari` said, "I said, `O Messenger of Allah! Should I recite to you words of praise for My Lord, the Exalted, that I have collected' He said,
«أَمَا إِنَّ رَبَّكَ يُحِبُّ الْحَمْدَ»
(Verily, your Lord likes Al-Hamd.)''
An-Nasa'i also recorded this Hadith. Furthermore, Abu `Isa At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah recorded that Musa bin Ibrahim bin Kathir related that Talhah bin Khirash said that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«أَفْضَلُ الذِّكْرِ لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا اللهُ، وَأَفْضَلُ الدُّعَاءِ الْحَمْدُدِلله»
(The best Dhikr (remembering Allah) is La ilaha illallah and the best supplication is Al-Hamdu Lillah.)
At-Tirmidhi said that this Hadith is Hasan Gharib. Also, Ibn Majah recorded that Anas bin Malik said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«مَا أَنْعَمَ اللهُ عَلَى عَبْدٍنِعْمَةً فَقَالَ: الْحَمْدُ للهِ، إِلَّا كَانَ الَّذِي أَعْطَى أَفْضَلَ مِمَّا أَخَذَ»
(No servant is blessed by Allah and says,`Al-Hamdu Lillah', except that what he was given is better than that which he has himself acquired.) Further, in his Sunan, Ibn Majah recorded that Ibn `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«إِنَّ عَبْدًا مِنْ عِبَادِ اللهِ قَالَ:يَا رَبِّ لَكَ الْحَمْدُ كَمَا يَنْبَغِي لِجَلَالِ وَجْهِكَ وَعَظِيمِ سُلْطَانِكَ. فَعَضَلَتْ بِالْمَلَكَيْنِ فَلَمْ يَدْرِيَا كَيْفَ يَكْتُبَانِهَا فَصَعِدَا إِلَى اللهِ فَقَالَا: يَا رَبَّنَا إِنَّ عَبْدًا قَدْ قَالَ مَقَالَةً لَا نَدْرِي كَيْفَ نَكْتُبُهَا، قَالَ اللهُ، وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا قَالَ عَبْدُهُ: مَاذَا قَالَ عَبْدِي؟ قَالَا: يَا رَبِّ إِنَّهُ قَالَ: لَكَ الْحَمْدُ يَا رَبِّ كَمَا يَنْبَغِي لِجَلَالِ وَجْهِكَ وَعَظِيمِ سُلْطَانِكَ. فَقَالَ اللهُ لَهُمَا: اكْتُبَاهَا كَمَا قَالَ عَبْدِي، حَتَّى يَلْقَانِي فَأَجْزِيهِ بِهَا.»
(A servant of Allah once said, `O Allah! Yours is the Hamd that is suitable for the grace of Your Face and the greatness of Your Supreme Authority.' The two angels were confused as to how to write these words. They ascended to Allah and said, `O our Lord! A servant has just uttered a statement and we are unsure how to record it for him.' Allah said while having more knowledge in what His servant has said, 'What did My servant say' They said, `He said, `O Allah! Yours is the Hamd that is suitable for the grace of Your Face and the greatness of Your Supreme Authority.' Allah said to them, `Write it as My servant has said it, until he meets Me and then I shall reward him for it.)
Al before Hamd encompasses all Types of Thanks and Appreciation for Allah
The letters Alif and Lam before the word Hamd serve to encompass all types of thanks and appreciation for Allah, the Exalted. A Hadith stated,
«اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ الْحَمْدُ كُلُّهُ، وَلَكَ الْمُلْكُ كُلُّهُ، وَبِيَدِكَ الْخَيْرُ كُلُّهُ، وَإِلَيْكَ يُرْجَعُ الْأَمْرُ كُلُّهُ»
(O Allah! All of Al-Hamd is due to You, You own all the ownership, all types of good are in Your Hand and all affairs belong to You.)
The Meaning of Ar-Rabb, the Lord
Ar-Rabb is the owner who has full authority over his property. Ar-Rabb, linguistically means, the master or the one who has the authority to lead. All of these meanings are correct for Allah. When it is alone, the word Rabb is used only for Allah. As for other than Allah, it can be used to say Rabb Ad-Dar, the master of such and such object. Further, it was reported that Ar-Rabb is Allah's Greatest Name.
The Meaning of Al-`Alamin
Al-`Alamin is plural for `Alam, which encompasses everything in existence except Allah. The word `Alam is itself a plural word, having no singular form. The `Alamin are different creations that exist in the heavens and the earth, on land and at sea. Every generation of creation is called an `Alam. Al-Farra` and Abu `Ubayd said, "`Alam includes all that has a mind, the Jinns, mankind, the angels and the devils, but not the animals.'' Also, Zayd bin Aslam and Abu Muhaysin said, `Alam includes all that Allah has created with a soul.'' Further, Qatadah said about,
رَبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ
(The Lord of the `Alamin), "Every type of creation is an `Alam.'' Az-Zajjaj also said, "Alam encompasses everything that Allah created, in this life and in the Hereafter.'' Al-Qurtubi commented, "This is the correct meaning, that the `Alam encompasses everything that Allah created in both worlds. Similarly, Allah said,
قَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ وَمَا رَبُّ الْعَـلَمِينَ - قَالَ رَبُّ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَآ إِن كُنتُمْ مُّوقِنِينَ
(Fir`awn (Pharaoh) said: "And what is the Lord of the `Alamin'' Musa (Moses) said: "The Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, if you seek to be convinced with certainty'') (26:23-24).
Why is the Creation called `Alam
`Alam is derived from `Alamah, that is because it is a sign testifying to the existence of its Creator and to His Oneness.''
1.1-3 Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
Islamic culture requires a man to commence everything with the name of Allah. If this is done consciously and sincerely, it will surely produce three good results. First, it will keep him away from evil, because the very name of Allah will impel him to consider whether he is justified in associating His name with a wrong deed or an evil intention. Secondly, the very mention of the name of Allah will create in him the right attitude of mind and direct him to the right direction. Thirdly,he will receive Allah's help and blessing and will be protected from the temptations of Satan, for Allah turns to a man when he turns to Him.
It has been stated in the Introduction to this Surah that AI-Fatihah is a prayer. It begins with the praise of Allah to Whom it is addressed in order to teach us the right way of making a supplication. We should not put forward our request bluntly and abruptly without an appropriate introduction. The right way is to acknowledge the excellences and the favors and the high position of the One to Whom we address our prayer. That is why we begin our prayer with the praise of Allah, for He is the perfection of all excellences also our Benefactor. We pay homage to Allah to show that we sincerely acknowledge His excellences and also are grateful to Him for His countless favours. It should also be noted that not only Praise is for Allah but also Praise is only for Allah. This distinction is very important because it cuts at the root of the worship of any of His creation. As none of them is worthy of praise, none is worthy of worship. No man, no angel, no prophet, no so-called god, no star, no idol, in short. none of His creation inherently possesses any good quality. If one has any, it is given by Allah. Hence the Creator of these qualities alone deserves devotion, worship, gratitude, and none of His creation.
The word Rab which has been translated into `Lord' stands for (a) Master and Owner, (b) Sustainer, Provider and Guardian, (c) Sovereign, Ruler, Administrator and Organizer. Allah is the Lord of the Universe in all these senses.
Although the Arabic word Rahman itself is in the superlative form and denotes the attributes of beneficence and mercy in the highest degree, even this word fails to express the boundless extent of these attributes of Allah. Hence another word Rahim of the same root has been added to make up for the deficiency.
After saying that Allah is Beneficent and Merciful, it has immediately been added that He is the Master of the Day of Judgment, so that the qualities of mercy and kindness might not mislead anyone into forgetting that on that Day He will gather together all human beings from the first to the last and require each and every one to give an account of all of one's acts to Him. A Muslim should, therefore, always keep in view the fact that Allah is not only Merciful, but He is also Just. He has, however, full authority to pardon or punish anyone He pleases, for He has complete power over everything. Therefore we should have full conviction that it lies absolutely in His power to make our end happy or sorrowful.
1.2 Qushairi - Al-Qushairi
The real meaning of praise ḥamd is extolling the One who is praiseworthy maḥmūd by mentioning His sublime attributes and beautiful acts. The [letter] lām here [from the particle al in al-ḥamdu li-Llāh] indicates an all-comprehensive category since all praiseworthy acts are God's سبحانه either by attribution waṣf or creation khalq. Praise belongs to Him because of the manifestation of His sovereign power and gratitude belongs to Him because of the abundance of His goodness. Praise belongs to God because of what He is due from His sublimity and His beauty and gratitude belongs to God because of the plentitude of His favors and the preciousness of His gifts. The praise for Him سبحانه which is from Him is from the attributes of His speech and word and the praise of Him which is from His creation is by virtue of His favors and His might. His sublimity and His beauty are His due because of the attributes of grandeur. They are His entitlement because of [His] qualities of exaltedness and loftiness. Eternal existence belongs to Him. Noble generosity belongs to Him. Unique permanence belongs to Him as do everlasting being eternal remaining endless splendor and perpetual praise. Hearing and seeing belong to Him as do divine decree and measure speech might and power mercy and generosity entity ʿayn and existence wujūd the beautiful face al-wajhu dhū l-jamāl and the sublime measure al-qadru dhū l-jalāl. He is the One most high. His grandeur is His garment His loftiness is His brilliance His magnificence is His exaltedness His being is His essence His eternity without beginning is His everlasting eternity His timelessness is His endless eternity His truth is His self and His permanence is His entity. His perpetuity is His remaining His decree is His measure His sublimity is His beauty His prohibition is His command His wrath is His mercy and His desire is His will. He is the King by His invincibility jabarūt and the One in His dominion malakūt. God the blessed and glorified! Glory be to Him how weighty is His affair! The Real سبحانه وتعالى knows the intensity of the spiritual desire irāda of His friends to praise and extol Him and their inability to perform the praise due to Him in accordance with His exaltedness and radiance.
Therefore He informed them that He has praised Himself in the opening of His address in His words Praise be to God and they are revived after being lowly and experience life after being dead and their innermost selves take on the perfection of strength [through God]. For they have heard the praise of the Real about the Real in the speech of the Real. They explain the symbol as a matter of finding resemblances and say: A moon is attributable to her face because of her face [itself]. Kohl is attributable to her eyes because of her eyes [themselves]. When the Prophet the speaker to the first and the last the master of those who use language skillfully and the leader of those who are eloquent heard [God's] praise of Himself and His laudation of His Truth he knew that what is most appropriate in this situation is to hold one's tongue. So he said “There is no way to enumerate the praise due to You You are as You have praised Yourself.” If her words had reached David's ears he would not have sung his melodies. Suʿād sang with her voice and the melodies of David became mute in embarrassment. The classes of those who give praise are different because of the disparity in their states. One group praises Him based on what they have obtained of the favors and kindnesses He grants through His helping and defending removing and granting. What they understand concerning His goodness to them is no more than what they acknowledge of His favors to them. [God] may His mention be exalted said: And if you were to count God's grace you could never reckon it [14:34 and 16:18]. Another group praises Him based on what He has made to appear to their hearts qulūb from the wonders of His kindnesses and the hidden things His beneficence has placed in the inner secrets of their hearts sarāÌir and what He has unveiled to their innermost selves asrār from the secret of His unseen and what He has singled out for their spirits arwāḥ from the unexpected intuitions of His glories. Other people praise Him upon witnessing what is unveiled to them through Him regarding the attributes of eternity. After observing [His] exaltedness and nobleness they no longer pay any attention to allotments or favors. There is a difference between those who praise Him for His exalted sublimity and those who give thanks to Him for the existence of His gifts just as the one who spoke for them said: It was not poverty that drove us away from the land of kinsfolk.
We were just happy to come to see you. Other people praise Him annihilated in the expressions of praise that have caused them to speak. They speak through the realities of declaring His unity realities that have eradicated their innermost selves. They speak of Him through Him and allude to Him through Him. The decrees flow over them turning them this way and that. Their outward condition is protected by the attribute of separation while their innermost selves are seized by the force of the gathering of the gathering jamʿ al-jamʿ. As they say The explanation of the explanation of the Real You are its explanation Every meaning of the unseen You are its mouthpiece. Lord of all worlds The Lord rabb is the Sayyid and the worlds are all created things. What is being specified in the plural term “worlds” includes rational beings and inanimate things since He is the Master mālik of [all] perceived things aʿyān. He forms them and brings into existence the outward markings and dwellings that characterize them. His name Lord rabb also indicates the cultivation tarbiya of created beings since he is the caretaker murabbī of the souls of the worshipers nufūs al-ʿābidīn through the giving of support taÌyīd the caretaker of the hearts of seekers qulūb al-Ṭālibīn by giving direction tasdīd and the caretaker of the spirits of those with deeper knowledge arwāḥ al-ʿārifīn by the affirmation of unity tawḥīd. He is the caretaker of the bodily forms ashbāḥ by the finding wujūd of blessings and the caretaker of the spirits arwāḥ by the witnessing shuhūd of generosity. The name Lord rabb also indicates His improvement iṣlāḥ of the affairs of His servants. It is said “I tanned or seasoned rabaytu the hide.” So He is the one who seasons the affairs of the ascetics umūr al-zāhidīn in the beauty of his care riʿāya and He is the one who seasons the affairs of the worshipers umūr al-ʿābidīn in the goodness of His sufficiency kifāya and He is the one who seasons the affairs of the ecstatics umūr al-wājidīn in His eternal solicitude ʿināya. He improves the affairs of some and they are enriched by His gifts. He improves the affairs of others and they long to meet Him. He improves a third group and they are rightly directed toward meeting Him. The one who spoke for them said: As long as the stars of your glory are fortunate I do not care whether people live or perish.
1.2 Tustari - Al-Tustari
Praise be to God Sahl said:The meaning of ‘Praise be to God’ (al-ḥamdu li’Llāh) is ‘thanks be to God’ (al-shukru li’Llāh), [for] gratitude towards God is obedience (ṭāʿa) to Him. Obedience to Him is guardianship (wilāya) from Him, Exalted is He, and thus God, Exalted is He, has said: ‘Your patron (walī) is God only, and His Messenger, and the believers...’ [5:55] God’s patronage can only be fully attained by becoming free of all other than Him.The meaning of Lord of the Worlds is: the Lord of all created beings and the One who rears and fosters them (murabbī); He is the One who presides over their affairs and who rectifies and orders things for them, even before they and their acts are brought into existence. He deals with them according to His pre-eternal knowledge of them, as He wills and for whatever purpose He wills, wishes, rules, and decrees, regarding that which is commanded and that which is forbidden, and they have no lord except Him.
1.1-7 Wahidi - Asbab Al-Nuzul by Al-Wahidi
There is some scholarly disagreement concerning this Surah [i.e. concerning where it was revealed]; the majority is however of the opinion that it was revealed in Mecca, one among the first Surahs of the Qur'an to be revealed. Abu 'Uthman Sa'id ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Zahid informed us> his grandfather>Abu 'Amr al-Hiri> Ibrahim ibn al-Harith and 'Ali ibn Sahl ibn al-Mughirah who said: Yahya ibn Abi Bukayr informed us> Isra'il> Abu Ishaq> Abu Maysarah ['Amr ibn Shurahbil] who said: “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, whenever he went out, used to hear someone calling him 'O Muhammad!' And whenever he heard this, he used to flee. Waraqah ibn Nawfal advised the Prophet to remain in his place when the caller calls him so that he hears what he has to tell him. And so when he went out, he heard the calling: 'O Muhammad!' He said: 'Here I am! At your service!' The caller said: 'Say: I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah'. Then he said: 'Say (Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Owner of the Day of Judgement…)' and he read until the end of the Opening of the Book”. This is also the opinion of 'Ali ibn Abi Talib. Abu Ishaq Ahmad ibn Muhammad, the Qur'anic commentator, informed us>al-Hasan ibn Ja'far, the commentator who said: Abu'l-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Mahmud al-Marwazi> 'Abd Allah ibn Mahmud al-Sa'di> Abu Yahya al-Qasri> Marwan ibn Mu'awiyah> al-'Ala' ibn al-Musayyab> al-Fudayl ibn 'Amr> 'Ali ibn Abi Talib who said: “The Opening of the Book was revealed in Mecca from a treasure beneath the divine Throne”. And through the same chain of transmission> al-Sa'di who said: 'Amr ibn Salih informed us> his father> al-Kalbi> Abu Salih> ibn 'Abbas who said: “The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, stood up once in Mecca and said: 'In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds'. The people of Quraysh said: 'May Allah strike your mouth' or something to this effect”. This was related by al-Hasan and Qatadah. But according to Mujahid, the Opening of the Book was revealed in Medina. About this opinion al-Husayn ibn al-Fadl said: “Every scholar has a lapse, and this is one lapse from Mujahid, since he is the only scholar who holds this opinion while all the other scholars disagree with him”. What makes the Opening of the Book categorically a Meccan Surah is the saying of Allah, exalted is He: (We have given thee seven of the oft-repeated (verses) and the great Qur'an), i.e. the Opening of the Book. Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Nahwi informed us> Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn 'Ali al-Hiri> Ahmad ibn 'Ali ibn al-Muthanna> Yahya ibn Ayyub> Isma'il ibn Ja'far> al-'Ala'> his father> Abu Hurayrah who said: “When Ubayy ibn Ka'b finished reading the Opening of the Book to him, the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: 'By Him in Whose Hand is my soul, Allah has not revealed the like of it in the Torah, the Gospel, the Psalm or in the Qur'an. Verily, I was given the seven oft-repeated [i.e. al-Fatihah] and the great Qur'an' ”. Furthermore, there is no disagreement that Surah al-Hijr was revealed in Mecca. It follows therefore that Allah would not mention His bounty on the Prophet for giving him the Opening of the Book while in Mecca and then reveal this to him in Medina. Again, one cannot possibly say that Allah's Messenger, Allah bless him and give him peace, stayed over ten years in Mecca and prayed during this time without the Opening of the Book. This is inconceivable.