Hadith collection

Muwatta Malik / Book 41 / Hadith 31

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Muwatta Malik
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Yahya related to me from Malik that Abu'z-Zinad informed him that a governor of Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz took some people in battle and had not killed any of them. He wanted to cut off their hands or kill them, so he wrote to Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz about that Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz wrote to him, "Better to take less than that." Yahya said that he heard Malik say, "What is done among us about a person who steals the goods of people which are placed under guard in the markets, and their owners put them in their containers and store them together is that if anyone steals any of that from where it is kept, and its value reaches that for which cutting off the hand is obliged, his hand must be cut off, whether or not the owner of the goods is with his goods and whether it is night or day." Malik said about some one who stole something for which cutting off the hand was obliged and then what he stole was found with him and he returned it to its owner, "His hand is cut off." Malik said, "If someon says, 'How can his hand be cut off when the goods have been taken from him and returned to their owner?', it is because he is in the same position as the wine drinker when the smell of the wine is found on his breath and he is not drunk. He is flogged with the hadd. "The hadd is imposed for drinking wine even if it does not make the man intoxicated. That is because he drank it to become intoxicated. It is the same as that with cutting off the hand of the thief for theft when it is taken from him, even if he has not profited from it and it was returned to its owner. When he stole it, he stole it to take it away." Malik said that if some people came to a house and robbed it together, and then they left with a sack or box or a board or basket or the like of that which they carried together, and when they took it out of its guarded place, they carried it together, and the price of what they took reached that for which cutting off the hand was obliged, and that was three dirhams and upwards, each of them had his hand cut off. "If each of them takes out something by himself, whoever of them takes out something whose value reaches three dirhams and upwards must have his hand cut off. If any of them takes out something whose value does not reach three dirhams, he does not have his hand cut off." Yahya said that Malik said, "What is done among us is that when a man's house is locked and he is the only one living in it, cutting off the hand is not obliged against the one who steals something from it until he takes it out of the house completely. That is because all of the house is a place of custody. If someone other than him lives in the house and each of them locks his door, and it is a place of custody for each of them, whoever steals anything from the apartments of that house must have his hand cut off when he leaves the apartment and goes into the main house. He has removed it from its place of custody to another place and he must have his hand cut off." Malik said, "What is done in our community about a slave who steals from the property of his master is that if he is not in service and among those trusted in the house and he enters secretly and steals from his master something that for which cutting off the hand is obliged, his hand is not cut off. It is like that with a slave-girl when she steals from her master's property. Her hand is not cut off." Malik then spoke about a slave who was not in service and not one of those trusted in the house, and he entered secretly and stole from the property of his master's wife that for which cutting off the hand was obliged. He said, "His hand is cut off." "It is like that with the wife's slave-girl when she does not serve her or her husband nor is she trusted in the house and she enters secretly and steals from her mistress's property that for which cutting off the hand is obliged. Her hand is not cut off." "It is like that with the wife's slave-girl who is not in her service and is not trusted in the house and she enters secretly and steals from the property of her mistress's husband something for which cutting off the hand is obliged. Her hand is cut off." It is like that with the man who steals from his wife's goods or the wife who steals from her husband's goods something for which cutting off the hand is obliged. If the thing which one of them steals from his spouse's property is in a room other than the room which they both lock for themselves, or it is in a place of custody in a room other than the room which they are in, whichever of them steals something for which cutting off the hand is obliged, their hand should be cut off." Malik spoke about a small child and a foreigner who does not speak clearly. He said, "If they are robbed of something from its place of custody or from under a lock, the one who stole it has his hand cut off. If the property is outside of its place of custody or locked room(when it is stolen), the one who robbed them does not have his hand cut off. It is then in the position of sheep stolen from the mountain and uncut fruit hanging on the trees " Malik said, "What is done among us about a person who robs graves is that if what he takes from the grave reaches what cutting off the hand is obliged for, his hand is cut off. That is because the grave is a place of custody for what is in it just as houses are a place of custody for what is in them. " Malik added, "Cutting off the hand is not obliged for him until he takes it out of the grave."

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّ أَبَا الزِّنَادِ، أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ عَامِلاً لِعُمَرَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ أَخَذَ نَاسًا فِي حِرَابَةٍ وَلَمْ يَقْتُلُوا أَحَدًا فَأَرَادَ أَنْ يَقْطَعَ أَيْدِيَهُمْ أَوْ يَقْتُلَ فَكَتَبَ إِلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ فِي ذَلِكَ فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ عُمَرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ لَوْ أَخَذْتَ بِأَيْسَرِ ذَلِكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ يَحْيَى وَسَمِعْتُ مَالِكًا يَقُولُ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا فِي الَّذِي يَسْرِقُ أَمْتِعَةَ النَّاسِ الَّتِي تَكُونُ مَوْضُوعَةً بِالأَسْوَاقِ مُحْرَزَةً قَدْ أَحْرَزَهَا أَهْلُهَا فِي أَوْعِيَتِهِمْ وَضَمُّوا بَعْضَهَا إِلَى بَعْضٍ إِنَّهُ مَنْ سَرَقَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْئًا مِنْ حِرْزِهِ فَبَلَغَ قِيمَتُهُ مَا يَجِبُ فِيهِ الْقَطْعُ فَإِنَّ عَلَيْهِ الْقَطْعَ كَانَ صَاحِبُ الْمَتَاعِ عِنْدَ مَتَاعِهِ أَوْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَيْلاً ذَلِكَ أَوْ نَهَارًا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الَّذِي يَسْرِقُ مَا يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ فِيهِ الْقَطْعُ ثُمَّ يُوجَدُ مَعَهُ مَا سَرَقَ فَيُرَدُّ إِلَى صَاحِبِهِ إِنَّهُ تُقْطَعُ يَدُهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَإِنْ قَالَ قَائِلٌ كَيْفَ تُقْطَعُ يَدُهُ وَقَدْ أُخِذَ الْمَتَاعُ مِنْهُ وَدُفِعَ إِلَى صَاحِبِهِ فَإِنَّمَا هُوَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الشَّارِبِ يُوجَدُ مِنْهُ رِيحُ الشَّرَابِ الْمُسْكِرِ وَلَيْسَ بِهِ سُكْرٌ فَيُجْلَدُ الْحَدَّ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَإِنَّمَا يُجْلَدُ الْحَدَّ فِي الْمُسْكِرِ إِذَا شَرِبَهُ وَإِنْ لَمْ يُسْكِرْهُ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ إِنَّمَا شَرِبَهُ لِيُسْكِرَهُ فَكَذَلِكَ تُقْطَعُ يَدُ السَّارِقِ فِي السَّرِقَةِ الَّتِي أُخِذَتْ مِنْهُ وَلَوْ لَمْ يَنْتَفِعْ بِهَا وَرَجَعَتْ إِلَى صَاحِبِهَا وَإِنَّمَا سَرَقَهَا حِينَ سَرَقَهَا لِيَذْهَبَ بِهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الْقَوْمِ يَأْتُونَ إِلَى الْبَيْتِ فَيَسْرِقُونَ مِنْهُ جَمِيعًا فَيَخْرُجُونَ بِالْعِدْلِ يَحْمِلُونَهُ جَمِيعًا أَوِ الصُّنْدُوقِ أَوِ الْخَشَبَةِ أَوْ بِالْمِكْتَلِ أَوْ مَا أَشْبَهَ ذَلِكَ مِمَّا يَحْمِلُهُ الْقَوْمُ جَمِيعًا إِنَّهُمْ إِذَا أَخْرَجُوا ذَلِكَ مِنْ حِرْزِهِ وَهُمْ يَحْمِلُونَهُ جَمِيعًا فَبَلَغَ ثَمَنُ مَا خَرَجُوا بِهِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ مَا يَجِبُ فِيهِ الْقَطْعُ - وَذَلِكَ ثَلاَثَةُ دَرَاهِمَ فَصَاعِدًا - فَعَلَيْهِمُ الْقَطْعُ جَمِيعًا ‏.‏ قَالَ وَإِنْ خَرَجَ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمْ بِمَتَاعٍ عَلَى حِدَتِهِ فَمَنْ خَرَجَ مِنْهُمْ بِمَا تَبْلُغُ قِيمَتُهُ ثَلاَثَةَ دَرَاهِمَ فَصَاعِدًا فَعَلَيْهِ الْقَطْعُ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَخْرُجْ مِنْهُمْ بِمَا تَبْلُغُ قِيمَتُهُ ثَلاَثَةَ دَرَاهِمَ فَلاَ قَطْعَ عَلَيْهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ يَحْيَى قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّهُ إِذَا كَانَتْ دَارُ رَجُلٍ مُغْلَقَةً عَلَيْهِ لَيْسَ مَعَهُ فِيهَا غَيْرُهُ فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يَجِبُ عَلَى مَنْ سَرَقَ مِنْهَا شَيْئًا الْقَطْعُ حَتَّى يَخْرُجَ بِهِ مِنَ الدَّارِ كُلِّهَا وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ الدَّارَ كُلَّهَا هِيَ حِرْزُهُ فَإِنْ كَانَ مَعَهُ فِي الدَّارِ سَاكِنٌ غَيْرُهُ وَكَانَ كُلُّ إِنْسَانٍ مِنْهُمْ يُغْلِقُ عَلَيْهِ بَابَهُ وَكَانَتْ حِرْزًا لَهُمْ جَمِيعًا فَمَنْ سَرَقَ مِنْ بُيُوتِ تِلْكَ الدَّارِ شَيْئًا يَجِبُ فِيهِ الْقَطْعُ فَخَرَجَ بِهِ إِلَى الدَّارِ فَقَدْ أَخْرَجَهُ مِنْ حِرْزِهِ إِلَى غَيْرِ حِرْزِهِ وَوَجَبَ عَلَيْهِ فِيهِ الْقَطْعُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَالأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا فِي الْعَبْدِ يَسْرِقُ مِنْ مَتَاعِ سَيِّدِهِ أَنَّهُ إِنْ كَانَ لَيْسَ مِنْ خَدَمِهِ وَلاَ مِمَّنْ يَأْمَنُ عَلَى بَيْتِهِ ثُمَّ دَخَلَ سِرًّا فَسَرَقَ مِنْ مَتَاعِ سَيِّدِهِ مَا يَجِبُ فِيهِ الْقَطْعُ فَلاَ قَطْعَ عَلَيْهِ وَكَذَلِكَ الأَمَةُ إِذَا سَرَقَتْ مِنْ مَتَاعِ سَيِّدِهَا لاَ قَطْعَ عَلَيْهَا ‏.‏ وَقَالَ فِي الْعَبْدِ لاَ يَكُونُ مِنْ خَدَمِهِ وَلاَ مِمَّنْ يَأْمَنُ عَلَى بَيْتِهِ فَدَخَلَ سِرًّا فَسَرَقَ مِنْ مَتَاعِ امْرَأَةِ سَيِّدِهِ مَا يَجِبُ فِيهِ الْقَطْعُ إِنَّهُ تُقْطَعُ يَدُهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَكَذَلِكَ أَمَةُ الْمَرْأَةِ إِذَا كَانَتْ لَيْسَتْ بِخَادِمٍ لَهَا وَلاَ لِزَوْجِهَا وَلاَ مِمَّنْ تَأْمَنُ عَلَى بَيْتِهَا فَدَخَلَتْ سِرًّا فَسَرَقَتْ مِنْ مَتَاعِ سَيِّدَتِهَا مَا يَجِبُ فِيهِ الْقَطْعُ فَلاَ قَطْعَ عَلَيْهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَكَذَلِكَ أَمَةُ الْمَرْأَةِ الَّتِي لاَ تَكُونُ مِنْ خَدَمِهَا وَلاَ مِمَّنْ تَأْمَنُ عَلَى بَيْتِهَا فَدَخَلَتْ سِرًّا فَسَرَقَتْ مِنْ مَتَاعِ زَوْجِ سَيِّدَتِهَا مَا يَجِبُ فِيهِ الْقَطْعُ أَنَّهَا تُقْطَعُ يَدُهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَكَذَلِكَ الرَّجُلُ يَسْرِقُ مِنْ مَتَاعِ امْرَأَتِهِ أَوِ الْمَرْأَةُ تَسْرِقُ مِنْ مَتَاعِ زَوْجِهَا مَا يَجِبُ فِيهِ الْقَطْعُ إِنْ كَانَ الَّذِي سَرَقَ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا مِنْ مَتَاعِ صَاحِبِهِ فِي بَيْتٍ سِوَى الْبَيْتِ الَّذِي يُغْلِقَانِ عَلَيْهِمَا وَكَانَ فِي حِرْزٍ سِوَى الْبَيْتِ الَّذِي هُمَا فِيهِ فَإِنَّ مَنْ سَرَقَ مِنْهُمَا مِنْ مَتَاعِ صَاحِبِهِ مَا يَجِبُ فِيهِ الْقَطْعُ فَعَلَيْهِ الْقَطْعُ فِيهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الصَّبِيِّ الصَّغِيرِ وَالأَعْجَمِيِّ الَّذِي لاَ يُفْصِحُ أَنَّهُمَا إِذَا سُرِقَا مِنْ حِرْزِهِمَا أَوْ غَلْقِهِمَا فَعَلَى مَنْ سَرَقَهُمَا الْقَطْعُ وَإِنْ خَرَجَا مِنْ حِرْزِهِمَا وَغَلْقِهِمَا فَلَيْسَ عَلَى مَنْ سَرَقَهُمَا قَطْعٌ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَإِنَّمَا هُمَا بِمَنْزِلَةِ حَرِيسَةِ الْجَبَلِ وَالثَّمَرِ الْمُعَلَّقِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَالأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا فِي الَّذِي يَنْبِشُ الْقُبُورَ أَنَّهُ إِذَا بَلَغَ مَا أَخْرَجَ مِنَ الْقَبْرِ مَا يَجِبُ فِيهِ الْقَطْعُ فَعَلَيْهِ فِيهِ الْقَطْعُ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ مَالِكٌ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ الْقَبْرَ حِرْزٌ لِمَا فِيهِ كَمَا أَنَّ الْبُيُوتَ حِرْزٌ لِمَا فِيهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ وَلاَ يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ الْقَطْعُ حَتَّى يَخْرُجَ بِهِ مِنَ الْقَبْرِ ‏.‏