Hadith collection

Sunan Abu Dawud / Hadith 2963

Ahmad Hasan translation Dar-us-Salam reference USC-MSA web (English) reference
Collection
Sunan Abu Dawud
Dar-us-Salam reference
Ahmad Hasan translation

Narrated Malik b. Aws b. Al-Hadathan:

'Umar sent for me when the day rose high. I found him sitting on a couch without cover. When I entered upon him, he said: Malik, some people of you tribe gradually came here, and I have ordered to give them something, so distribute it among them. I said: If you assigned this (work) to some other person, (it would be better). He said: Take it. Then Yarfa' came to him and said: Commander of the Faithful, will you permit 'Uthman b. 'Affan, 'Abd al-Rahman b. 'Awf, al-Zubair b. al-'Awwam, and Sa'd b, Abi Waqqas (to enter) ? He said: Yes. So he permitted them and they entered. Yarfa' again came to him and said: Commander of the Faithful, would you permit al-'Abbas and 'Ali ? He said: Yes. He then permitted them and they entered. Al-'Abbas said: Commander of Faithful, decide between me and this, referring to 'Ali. Some of them said: Yes, Commander of the Faithful, decide between them and give them comfort. Malik b. Aws said: It occurred to me that both of them brought the other people for this. 'Umar said: Show patience (do not make haste). He then turned towards those people and said: I adjure you by Allah by Whose order the heaven and earth stand. Do you know that Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: We are not inherited whatever we leave is sadaqah (alms). They said: Yes. He then turned towards 'Ali and al-'Abbas and said: I adjure you by Allah by Whose order the heaven and earth stand. Do you know that Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: We are not inherited whatever we leave is sadaqah (alms). They said: Yes. He then said: Allah has appointed for the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) a special portion (in the booty) which he did not do for anyone. Allah, Most High, said: What Allah has bestowed on His Apostle (and taken away) from them - for this ye made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry. But Allah gives power to His apostles over any He pleases ; and Allah has power over all things". Allah bestowed (the property of) Banu al-Nadir on His Apostle. I swear by Allah, he did not reserve it for himself, nor did he take it over and above you. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to his share for his maintenance annually, or used to take his contribution and give his family their annual contribution (from this property), then take what remained and deal with it as he did with Allah's property. He then turned towards those people and said: I adjure you by Allah by Whose order the heaven and earth stand. Do you know that ? They said: Yes. He then turned towards 'Ali and al-'Abbas and said: I adjure you by Allah by Whose order the heaven and earth stand. Do you know that ? They said: Yes. When the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) died, Abu Bakr said: I am the protector of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ). Then you and this ('Ali) came to Abu Bakr, demanding a share from the inheritance of your cousin, and this ('Ali) demanding the share of his wife from (the property of her) father. Abu Bakr then said: The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: We are not inherited. Whatever we leave is sadaqah. Allah knows that he (Abu Bakr) was true, faithful, rightly-guided, and the follower of Triuth. Abu Bakr then administered it (property of the Prophet). When Abu Bakr died, I said: I am the protector of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) and Abu Bakr. So I administered whatever Allah wished. Then you and this ('Ali) came. Both of you are at one, and your matter is the same. So they asked me for it (property), and I said: If you wish I give it to you on condition that you are bound by the covenant of Allah, meaning that you will administer it as the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to administer. So you took it from me on that condition. Then again you have come to me so that I decide between you other than that. I swear by Allah, I shall not decide between you other than that till the Last Hour comes. If you helpless, return it to me. Abu Dawud said: They asked him for making it half between them, and not that they were ignorant of the fact the Prophet (ﷺ) said: We are not inherited. Whatever we leave is sadaqah (alms). They were also seeking the truth. 'Umar then said: I do not apply the name of division to it ; It leave it on its former condition.

حَدَّثَنَا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى بْنِ فَارِسٍ الْمَعْنَى، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا بِشْرُ بْنُ عُمَرَ الزَّهْرَانِيُّ، حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكُ بْنُ أَنَسٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ مَالِكِ بْنِ أَوْسِ بْنِ الْحَدَثَانِ، قَالَ أَرْسَلَ إِلَىَّ عُمَرُ حِينَ تَعَالَى النَّهَارُ فَجِئْتُهُ فَوَجَدْتُهُ جَالِسًا عَلَى سَرِيرٍ مُفْضِيًا إِلَى رِمَالِهِ فَقَالَ حِينَ دَخَلْتُ عَلَيْهِ يَا مَالُ إِنَّهُ قَدْ دَفَّ أَهْلُ أَبْيَاتٍ مِنْ قَوْمِكَ وَإِنِّي قَدْ أَمَرْتُ فِيهِمْ بِشَىْءٍ فَاقْسِمْ فِيهِمْ ‏.‏ قُلْتُ لَوْ أَمَرْتَ غَيْرِي بِذَلِكَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ خُذْهُ ‏.‏ فَجَاءَهُ يَرْفَأُ فَقَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ هَلْ لَكَ فِي عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عَفَّانَ وَعَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عَوْفٍ وَالزُّبَيْرِ بْنِ الْعَوَّامِ وَسَعْدِ بْنِ أَبِي وَقَّاصٍ قَالَ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ فَأَذِنَ لَهُمْ فَدَخَلُوا ثُمَّ جَاءَهُ يَرْفَأُ فَقَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ هَلْ لَكَ فِي الْعَبَّاسِ وَعَلِيٍّ قَالَ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ فَأَذِنَ لَهُمْ فَدَخَلُوا فَقَالَ الْعَبَّاسُ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ اقْضِ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَ هَذَا - يَعْنِي عَلِيًّا - فَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَجَلْ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ اقْضِ بَيْنَهُمَا وَارْحَمْهُمَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكُ بْنُ أَوْسٍ خُيِّلَ إِلَىَّ أَنَّهُمَا قَدَّمَا أُولَئِكَ النَّفَرَ لِذَلِكَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ اتَّئِدَا ‏.‏ ثُمَّ أَقْبَلَ عَلَى أُولَئِكَ الرَّهْطِ فَقَالَ أَنْشُدُكُمْ بِاللَّهِ الَّذِي بِإِذْنِهِ تَقُومُ السَّمَاءُ وَالأَرْضُ هَلْ تَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ لاَ نُورَثُ مَا تَرَكْنَا صَدَقَةٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالُوا نَعَمْ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ أَقْبَلَ عَلَى عَلِيٍّ وَالْعَبَّاسِ رضى الله عنهما فَقَالَ أَنْشُدُكُمَا بِاللَّهِ الَّذِي بِإِذْنِهِ تَقُومُ السَّمَاءُ وَالأَرْضُ هَلْ تَعْلَمَانِ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ لاَ نُورَثُ مَا تَرَكْنَا صَدَقَةٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالاَ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ خَصَّ رَسُولَهُ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِخَاصَّةٍ لَمْ يَخُصَّ بِهَا أَحَدًا مِنَ النَّاسِ فَقَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى ‏{‏ وَمَا أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ مِنْهُمْ فَمَا أَوْجَفْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ خَيْلٍ وَلاَ رِكَابٍ وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ يُسَلِّطُ رُسُلَهُ عَلَى مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ‏}‏ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ أَفَاءَ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ بَنِي النَّضِيرِ فَوَاللَّهِ مَا اسْتَأْثَرَ بِهَا عَلَيْكُمْ وَلاَ أَخَذَهَا دُونَكُمْ فَكَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَأْخُذُ مِنْهَا نَفَقَةَ سَنَةٍ أَوْ نَفَقَتَهُ وَنَفَقَةَ أَهْلِهِ سَنَةً وَيَجْعَلُ مَا بَقِيَ أُسْوَةَ الْمَالِ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ أَقْبَلَ عَلَى أُولَئِكَ الرَّهْطِ فَقَالَ أَنْشُدُكُمْ بِاللَّهِ الَّذِي بِإِذْنِهِ تَقُومُ السَّمَاءُ وَالأَرْضُ هَلْ تَعْلَمُونَ ذَلِكَ قَالُوا نَعَمْ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ أَقْبَلَ عَلَى الْعَبَّاسِ وَعَلِيٍّ رضى الله عنهما فَقَالَ أَنْشُدُكُمَا بِاللَّهِ الَّذِي بِإِذْنِهِ تَقُومُ السَّمَاءُ وَالأَرْضُ هَلْ تَعْلَمَانِ ذَلِكَ قَالاَ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ فَلَمَّا تُوُفِّيَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ أَنَا وَلِيُّ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَجِئْتَ أَنْتَ وَهَذَا إِلَى أَبِي بَكْرٍ تَطْلُبُ أَنْتَ مِيرَاثَكَ مِنِ ابْنِ أَخِيكَ وَيَطْلُبُ هَذَا مِيرَاثَ امْرَأَتِهِ مِنْ أَبِيهَا فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ لاَ نُورَثُ مَا تَرَكْنَا صَدَقَةٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِنَّهُ لَصَادِقٌ بَارٌّ رَاشِدٌ تَابِعٌ لِلْحَقِّ فَوَلِيَهَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ فَلَمَّا تُوُفِّيَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ قُلْتُ أَنَا وَلِيُّ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَوَلِيُّ أَبِي بَكْرٍ فَوَلِيتُهَا مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ أَنْ أَلِيَهَا فَجِئْتَ أَنْتَ وَهَذَا وَأَنْتُمَا جَمِيعٌ وَأَمْرُكُمَا وَاحِدٌ فَسَأَلْتُمَانِيهَا فَقُلْتُ إِنْ شِئْتُمَا أَنْ أَدْفَعَهَا إِلَيْكُمَا عَلَى أَنَّ عَلَيْكُمَا عَهْدَ اللَّهِ أَنْ تَلِيَاهَا بِالَّذِي كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَلِيهَا فَأَخَذْتُمَاهَا مِنِّي عَلَى ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ جِئْتُمَانِي لأَقْضِيَ بَيْنَكُمَا بِغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ وَاللَّهِ لاَ أَقْضِي بَيْنَكُمَا بِغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ حَتَّى تَقُومَ السَّاعَةُ فَإِنْ عَجَزْتُمَا عَنْهَا فَرُدَّاهَا إِلَىَّ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ إِنَّمَا سَأَلاَهُ أَنْ يَكُونَ يُصَيِّرُهُ بَيْنَهُمَا نِصْفَيْنِ لاَ أَنَّهُمَا جَهِلاَ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ لاَ نُورَثُ مَا تَرَكْنَا صَدَقَةٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَإِنَّهُمَا كَانَا لاَ يَطْلُبَانِ إِلاَّ الصَّوَابَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ لاَ أُوقِعُ عَلَيْهِ اسْمَ الْقَسْمِ أَدَعُهُ عَلَى مَا هُوَ عَلَيْهِ ‏.‏