Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
And from his narration on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that he said regarding the interpretation of Allah's saying (When the heaven is cleft asunder): '(When the heaven is cleft asunder) by the descent of the Lord-a descent without modality-and the angels and whatever He wills of His command,
(When the heaven is cleft asunder (Infatarat).) meaning, it splits. This is as Allah says,
السَّمَآءُ مُنفَطِرٌ بِهِ
(Whereon the heaven will be cleft asunder (Munfatir)) (73:18) Then Allah says,
وَإِذَا الْكَوَاكِبُ انتَثَرَتْ
(And when the stars Intatharat.) meaning, fallen.
وَإِذَا الْبِحَارُ فُجِّرَتْ
(And when the seas Fujjirat.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "Allah will cause some of it to burst forth over other parts of it.'' Al-Hasan said, "Allah will cause some parts of it to burst forth over other parts of it, and its water will go away.'' Qatadah said, "Its fresh water will mix with its salt water.''
وَإِذَا الْقُبُورُ بُعْثِرَتْ
(And when the graves Bu`thirat.) Ibn `Abbas said, "searched.'' As-Suddi said, "Tub`athiru means that they will be moved and those who are in them will come out.''
عَلِمَتْ نَفْسٌ مَّا قَدَّمَتْ وَأَخَّرَتْ
(A person will know what he has sent forward and left behind.) meaning, when this happens then this will occur. Mankind should not forget about Allah Allah says,
(O man! What has made you careless about your Lord, the Most Generous) This is a threat. It is not an attempt to get a reply as some people mistakenly think. They consider it as if the Most Generous is asking them so that they will say, "His honor deceived him (or made him careless of his Lord).'' rather the meaning of this Ayah is, "O Son of Adam! What has deceived you from your Lord, the Most Generous -- meaning the Most Great -- so that you went forth disobeying Him, and you met Him with that which was unbefitting.'' This is similar to what has been reported in the Hadith,
(Allah will say on the Day of Judgement: "O Son of Adam! What has deceived you concerning Me O Son of Adam What was your response to the Messengers'') Al-Baghawi mentioned that Al-Kalbi and Muqatil said, "This Ayah was revealed about Al-Aswad bin Shariq who struck the Prophet and he was not punished in retaliation. So Allah revealed,
مَا غَرَّكَ بِرَبِّكَ الْكَرِيمِ
(What has made you careless about your Lord, the Most Generous)'' Then Allah said,
الَّذِى خَلَقَكَ فَسَوَّاكَ فَعَدَلَكَ
(Who created you, fashioned you perfectly, and gave you due proportion.) meaning, `what has deceived you concerning the Most Generous Lord'
الَّذِى خَلَقَكَ فَسَوَّاكَ فَعَدَلَكَ
(Who created you, fashioned you perfectly, and gave you due proportion.) meaning, `He made you complete, straight, and perfectly balanced and proportioned in stature. He fashioned you in the best of forms and shapes.' Imam Ahmad recorded from Busr bin Jahhash Al-Qurashi that one day the Messenger of Allah spat in his palm and placed his finger on it. Then he said,
(Allah the Mighty and Sublime says: "O Son of Adam! How can you escape Me when I created you from something similar to this (spit) Then I fashioned you and made your creation balanced so that you walked between the two outer garments. And the earth has a burial place for you. So you gathered (wealth) and withheld it until your soul reached your collarbone (i.e., death comes). Then, at that time you say, `I will give charity now.' But how will there be time for charity'') This Hadith has also been recorded by Ibn Majah. Concerning Allah's statement,
فِى أَىِّ صُورَةٍ مَّا شَآءَ رَكَّبَكَ
(In whatever form He willed, He put you together.) Mujahid said, "In which resemblance: the father, the mother, the paternal uncle, or the maternal uncle.'' In the Two Sahihs it is recorded from Abu Hurayrah that a man said, "O Messenger of Allah! Verily, my wife has given birth to a black boy.'' The Prophet said,
«هَلْ لَكَ مِنْ إِبِلٍ؟»
(Do you have any camels) The man said, "Yes.'' The Prophet then said,
(What color are they) The man said, "Red.'' The Prophet said,
«فَهَلْ فِيهَا مِنْ أَوْرَق»
(Do any of them have patches of gray) The man said, "Yes.'' The Prophet asked him,
«فَأَنْى أَتَاهَا ذلِك»
(How did this happen to them) The man replied, "It is probably an inherited genetical strain.'' The Prophet then said,
«وَهَذَا عَسَى أَنْ يَكُونَ نَزَعَهُ عِرْق»
(Likewise, this (with your son) is probably an inherited genetical strain.) The Cause of Deception and alerting to the Fact that Angels record the Deeds of the Children of Adam Concerning Allah's statement,
كَلاَّ بَلْ تُكَذِّبُونَ بِالدِّينِ
(Nay! But you deny (the Day of) Ad-Din.) meaning, `you are only compelled to oppose the Most Generous and meet Him with disobedience, by your rejection in your hearts of the Hereafter, the recompense and the reckoning.' Concerning Allah's statement,
(But verily, over you to watch you (are) Kiraman Katibin, they know all that you do.) (82:10-12) meaning, `indeed there are noble guardian angels over you, so do not meet them with evil deeds, because they write down all that you do.'
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
In Surah At-Takwir it has been said: "When the oceans are set ablaze," and here: "When the oceans are torn apart." When the two verses are read together, and this fact also is kept in view that even according to the Qur'an a terrible earthquake will occur on the Resurrection Day, which will shake up the entire earth all at once, the state of the splitting of the oceans and their being set ablaze ' seems to be as follows: first, because of the terrible convulsion, the bottom of the oceans will split asunder and their water will start sinking into the interior of the earth where an intensely hot lava is constantly boiling up. Coming into contact with the lava, water will dissolve into its two constituent parts, oxygen which helps combustion, and hydrogen, which is itself combustible. Thus, in the process pf dissolution and combustion, a chain reaction will start, which will set all the oceans 'of the world ablaze. This is our conjecture, the correct knowledge is only with Allah.
In the first three verses, the first stage of the Resurrection has been mentioned, and in this verse the second stage is being described. "Opening of the graves" implies resurrection of the dead then.
The words ma qaddamat wa akhkharat can have several meanings and all are implied here:
(1) Ma qaddamat is the good or evil act which man has sent forward, and ma akhkharat is what he refrained from doing. Thus, these Arabic words correspond to the acts of commission and omission in one's life.
(2) Ma qaddainat is what one did earlier and ma akhkharat what one did later; i.e. the whole life-work of man will appear before him date-wise and in proper sequence
(3) Whatever good and evil deeds a man did in his life is ma qaddamat and whatever effects and influences of his acts he left behind for human society is ma akhkharat.