77 - Al Mursalat (The emissaries)

5 Tafsir(s) related to verse 77.1


By those sent in succession (‘urfan), that is, [by] the winds that follow [one another] in succession, like the mane (‘urf) of a horse, one part [of hair] coming after the other (‘urfan is in the accusative because it is a circumstantial qualifier);


By those sent forth in succession;By this is meant the angels who are sent with the good (maʿrūf) of His command (amr).He said:In its inner meaning it refers to the spirits (arwāḥ) of the believers which are sent inspiration (ilhām) in accordance with the Book and the Sunna.

Ibn Al Kathir

Allah's swearing by Different Creatures about the Occurrence of the Hereafter

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said,

وَالْمُرْسَلَـتِ عُرْفاً

(By the Mursalat `Urfa.) "The angels.'' From Masruq, Abu Ad-Duha, Mujahid in one narrations from him, As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, statements similar to this have been reported. It has been reported from Abu Salih that he said, "These are the Messenger.'' In another narration from him (Abu Salih) he said that it means the angels. Abu Salih has also said the meaning of Al-`Asifat, An-Nashirat, Al-Fariqat and Al-Mulqiyat, that they all refer to the angels. Ath-Thawri narrated from Salamah bin Kuhayl, who reported from Muslim Al-Batin, who reported from Abu Al-`Ubaydayn that he asked Ibn Mas`ud about the meaning of Al-Mursalat `Urfa, and he (Ibn Mas`ud) said, "The wind.'' He said the same about Al-`Asifat `Asfa and An-Nashirat Nashra, that they all refer to the wind. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and Qatadah all said the same. Ibn Jarir confidently affirmed that Al-`Asifat `Asfa means the wind just as Ibn Mas`ud and those who followed him said.However, he (Ibn Jarir) did not affirm whether An-Nashirat Nashra are the angels or the wind as has preceded. It has been reported from Abu Salih that An-Nashirat Nashra is the rain. The most obvious meaning is as Allah says,

وَأَرْسَلْنَا الرِّيَاحَ لَوَاقِحَ

(And we send the winds fertilizing.) (15:22) He also says,

وَهُوَ الَّذِى يُرْسِلُ الرِّيَاحَ بُشْرىً بَيْنَ يَدَىْ رَحْمَتِهِ

(And it is He Who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, going before His mercy (rain).) (7:57) Similarly, Al-`Asifat are winds. It is said (in Arabic) that the winds `Asifat when they make noise with their blowing. Likewise, An-Nashirat are the winds that scatter into clouds in the horizons of the sky according to the will of the Lord. Allah then says,

فَالْفَـرِقَـتِ فَرْقاً - فَالْمُلْقِيَـتِ ذِكْراً - عُذْراً أَوْ نُذْراً

(The Fariqat that separate, the Mulqiyat that remind, excusing or warning.) meaning, the angels. This was said by Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Masruq, Mujahid, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, As-Suddi and Ath-Thawri. There is no difference of opinion here, because they (the angels) are the ones who descend with Allah's command to the Messengers, separating between the truth and falsehood, guidance and misguidance, and the lawful and the forbidden. They bring the revelation to the Messengers, which contains exemption or absolvement for the creatures and a warning for them of Allah's torment if they oppose His command. Allah said,

إِنَّمَا تُوعَدُونَ لَوَقِعٌ

(Surely, what you are promised will occur.) This is the subject of these oaths. This means, what you all have been promised concerning the establishment of the Hour (Judgement Day), the blowing of the horn, the resurrection of the bodies, the gathering of those of old and those of latter times on one common ground and the rewarding of every doer of a deed based upon his deed. If he did good, then his reward will be good, and if he did evil, then his reward will be evil. All of this will occur, meaning it will come to pass and there is no avoiding it.

A Mention of some of what will occur on the Day of Judgement

Then Allah says,

فَإِذَا النُّجُومُ طُمِسَتْ

(Then when the stars lose their lights.) meaning, their light will leave. This is similar to Allah's statement,

وَإِذَا النُّجُومُ انكَدَرَتْ

(And when the star fall.) (81:2) It is also similar to His statement,

وَإِذَا الْكَوَاكِبُ انتَثَرَتْ

(And when the stars have fallen and scattered.) (82:2) Then Allah says,

وَإِذَا السَّمَآءُ فُرِجَتْ

(And when Furijat the heaven.) meaning, it is cleft asunder, becomes split, its sides fall and its edges become weak.

وَإِذَا الْجِبَالُ نُسِفَتْ

(And when the mountains are blown away.) meaning, they will be removed and no sight or trace of them will remain. This is as Allah says,

وَيَسْـَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْجِبَالِ فَقُلْ يَنسِفُهَا رَبِّى نَسْفاً

(And they ask you concerning the mountains: Say, "My Lord will blast them and scatter them as particles of dust.'') (20:105) Allah also says,

" وَيَوْمَ نُسَيِّرُ الْجِبَالَ وَتَرَى الاٌّرْضَ بَارِزَةً وَحَشَرْنَـهُمْ فَلَمْ نُغَادِرْ مِنْهُمْ أَحَداً

(And (remember) the Day We shall cause the mountains to pass away (like clouds of dust), and you will see the earth as a leveled plain, and we shall gather them all together so as to leave not one of them behind.) (18:47) Then He says,

وَإِذَا الرُّسُلُ أُقِّتَتْ

(And when the Messengers are Uqqitat.) Al-`Awfi narrated from Ibn `Abbas that he said that Uqqitat means "Gathered.'' Ibn Zayd said, "This is similar to Allah's statement,

يَوْمَ يَجْمَعُ اللَّهُ الرُّسُلَ

(On the Day when Allah will gather the Messengers together.) Mujahid said,


(Uqqitat.) "This means postponed.'' Ath-Thawri narrated from Mansur, who narrated from Ibrahim that he said concerning the word,


(Uqqitat.) "This means promised.'' It seems as though he holds this to be similar to Allah's statement,

وَأَشْرَقَتِ الاٌّرْضُ بِنُورِ رَبِّهَا وَوُضِعَ الْكِتَـبُ وَجِـىءَ بِالنَّبِيِّيْنَ وَالشُّهَدَآءِ وَقُضِىَ بَيْنَهُم بِالْحَقِّ وَهُمْ لاَ يُظْلَمُونَ

(And the earth will shine with the light of its Lord: and the Book will be produced; and the Prophets and the witnesses will be brought forward; and it will be judged between them with truth, and they will not be wronged.) (39:69) Then Allah says,

لأَيِّ يَوْمٍ أُجِّلَتْ - لِيَوْمِ الْفَصْلِ - وَمَآ أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الْفَصْلِ - وَيْلٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِّلْمُكَذِّبِينَ

(For what Day are these signs postponed For the Day of Sorting Out. And what will explain to you what is the Day of Sorting Out Woe that Day to the deniers!) Allah is saying, `for which day are the Messengers postponed and their matter expected, so that the Hour will be established' This is as Allah says,

فَلاَ تَحْسَبَنَّ اللَّهَ مُخْلِفَ وَعْدِهِ رُسُلَهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ ذُو انتِقَامٍ - يَوْمَ تُبَدَّلُ الاٌّرْضُ غَيْرَ الاٌّرْضِ وَالسَّمَـوَتُ وَبَرَزُواْ للَّهِ الْوَاحِدِ الْقَهَّارِ

(So think not that Allah will fail to keep His promise to His Messengers. Certainly, Allah is Almighty, All-Able of Retribution. On the Day when the earth will be changed to another earth and so will be the heavens, and they will appear before Allah, the One, the Irresistible.) (14:47, 48) This is the Day of Sorting Out, as Allah says,

لِيَوْمِ الْفَصْلِ

(the Day of Sorting Out.) Then Allah says, in magnifying its matter,

وَمَآ أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الْفَصْلِ - وَيْلٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِّلْمُكَذِّبِينَ

(And what will explain to you what is the Day of Sorting Out Woe that Day to the deniers.) meaning, woe unto them from Allah's torment that is coming in the future.

Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an

That is, sometimes the failure of winds causes the people to be alarmed at the prospect of a famine, and they turn to Allah to repent of their sins: sometimes they bring a lot of rain and the people turn to Allah in gratitude; and sometimes their blowing violently causes dread in the hearts and the people turn to Allah from fear of destruction.

In these verses initially the order of rain-bringing winds has been stated, which is thus: first, winds start blowing in succession; then they assume the proportions of a storm; then they raise the clouds and spread them; then they split and separate them. After this, instead of making mention of the rainfall, it is said that the winds infuse the hearts with the remembrance of Allah, as an excuse or as a warning. That is, it is an occasion when either because of fear man is compelled to remember Allah, or else he confesses his errors and invokes Allah to protect and save him from ruin and bless him with rain. If it has not rained for a long time, and the people are thirsty for rain, even the most hardened disbeliever sometimes begins to remember God when he. sees the winds blowing and the clouds advancing. The drought's being mild and severe makes the difference. In case the drought is mild, the common man who is not far from Allah, will remember Him, but others will offer scientific explanations, saying that there was no cause for anxiety: it did not rain because of such and such a cause and it would be weak-mindedness to start praying to God on such an ordinary thing. However, if the drought is unusually prolonged, and the whole country is faced with a calamitous situation, even the confirmed disbelievers begin to remember God. If they feel shy to use their tongue, in their hearts they feel penitent on their wrongdoing and ingratitude and pray to God to cause rain throughout the country from the winds which are raising the clouds. This is infusion of God's remembrance in the hearts as an excuse. As for its infusion as a warning, it happens when the wind develops into a cyclone and destroys settlement after settlement or it rains so heavily as to cause a deluge, In such a state even a confirmed atheist starts imploring God out of awe for Him, and then all scientific explanations of the cyclone or deluge evaporate from his mind. Thus, after describing the blowing of winds in their succession to say that they infuse the hearts with Allah's remembrance as an excuse or as a warning, is meant to impress the truth that the system working in the world keeps on reminding man that everything on the earth has not been placed under his control but there is a Supreme Power above him, which rules his destiny. That Power is so supreme and mighty that it can use the elements for the sustenance and nourishment of man when it so wills and can use the same elements for his destruction when it so wills.

After this the same system of winds has been proffered as an argument to prove that the Resurrection which is being promised to man, must come to pass. Now, let us see how this system testifies to this truth.

Man generally is perplexed in the case of Resurrection and the Hereafter at two questions. First: is the occurrence of Resurrection possible? Second: what is its need and necessity? And then being perplexed at these questions, he starts entertaining doubts whether it will at all occur or not, or whether it was only a figment of the imagination. In this connection, the Qur'an has at some places reasoned out and proved its possibility, its necessity and occurrence from the system of the universe, and at others adopted another mode of reasoning: oaths have been sworn by some of the countless signs of God's Kingdom and it has been asserted that it shall surely come to pass. This mode of reasoning contains arguments for its possibility as well as arguments for its necessity and arguments for its occurrence.

Here, adopting the same mode of reasoning only the system of the circulation of winds and rainfall has been presented as a sign of the truth that it is a regular system, which has been established by the design of an All-Wise, All-Mighty Sovereign; it is not a chance occurrence, as a result of which a system might have been generated in the atmosphere of the earth that vapors should arise from the seas, winds should carry them and gather them into clouds, then split and separate them into pieces and transport them to different parts of the earth and then should cause them to fall as rain. This system has not been devised accidentally by some blind and deaf Nature, but it is a well-considered and well-designed plan, which is functioning regularly according to a law. That is why it never so happens that the heat of the sun should produce ice on the surface of the sea instead of vapors, but the sun always raises only vapors from the sea. It never so happens that the monsoons should blow in the reverse order and suppress vapors into the sea but they always raise them up into the atmosphere. It never so happens that the formation of clouds should cease, or the winds should stop to carry them to dry lands or the falling of rain on the earth should discontinue. The same law has been at work since millions and millions of years under which this system is functioning. Had it not been so our coming into existence on the earth and survival here would not be possible.

In this system one fords a clear purpose and the working of regular law. One can clearly see that on the earth the life of man, animal and vegetation deeply relates to the winds and rainfall, and this arrangement testifies that water has been provided to bring animate life into existence and keep it alive precisely according to their requirements and a law. This purpose and regularity is not found only in this aspect but in the entire system of the universe, and man's whole scientific progress is based on it. About every thing man tries to find out what is its purpose and on what principle it works Then as he goes on gaining insight into the purposes of the creation of different things and the principles on which they work, he goes on devising new and ever new methods of their use and making new inventions for the progress of his civilization. Had there been no such concept in the mind of man naturally that the world is a meaningful world and everything in it is working on a principle, he would never have entertained the question about anything as to what was its purpose and how it could be put to use.

Now, when this world and everything in it has meaning, and if there is a law working in this world and in everything it contains, and if it has been functioning with the same purpose and regularity since millions and millions of years, then a stubborn person only could refuse to accept that an all-knowing, All-Mighty God has made it, and about that God it would be foolish to assume that although He could make and cause it to function but cannot break it, and after breaking it, cannot reconstruct it in any other form if He so wills, The concept about matter that it is imperishable was the chief support of the ignorant atheist of the past, but the progress of knowledge has proved it also false. Now it is an acknowledged scientific fact that matter can change into energy and energy into matter. Therefore, it is perfectly according to knowledge and reason that this material world will last only as long as the Living and Eternal God sustains it. As soon as He wills to change it into energy, He can change it by a simple Command and His one Command is enough to re-create it into any other material form and shape He wills.

This much then about the possibility of the Resurrection, which cannot now be rejected by any scientific and rational argument. As for the question that it must take place so that man is rewarded for his good works and punished for his evil deeds, the person who acknowledges man's moral responsibility and also believes that rewarding the good services and punishing the crimes is the necessary demand of this moral responsibility, cannot but admit that there must be the Hereafter. There is no law or government in the world, which can punish every crime and reward every good act. To say that the prick of the conscience is a sufficient punishment for the culprit and the satisfaction of the conscience is sufficient reward for the doer of good is no more than meaningless philosophizing. The question is: How and when did the conscience of the person who killed an innocent man and then himself died in an accident immediately after it reprove him? And when did the conscience of the man who went to fight for the sake of truth and justice and fell a victim to a bomb blast suddenly, have the satisfaction that he had laid down his life for a good cause? Thus, the truth is that the pretenses invented to avoid the belief in the Hereafter are all meaningless. Man's intellect wants, his nature requires, that there should be justice, but in the present life of the world it is not possible to have full and perfect justice. Justice can be had only in the Hereafter and only under the judgment and command of the All-Knowing, Omnipotent God. Denial of the necessity of the Hereafter is, in fact, denial of the necessity of justice.

Intellect can go only so far as to convince man that the Hereafter is possible and it should come about. As for the truth that it will surely come about, the "knowledge" of it can be obtained only through Revelation, and Revelation has given us the news that "that which you are being promised must happen". We cannot attain this knowledge by intellectual reasoning; however, we can attain the certainty of its being true on the basis that the thing of which we are being informed by Revelation is both possible and necessary.

Another meaning can be; "That which you are being threatened with," i. e. the Resurrection and Hereafter.

Here an oath has been sworn by five things on the inevitability of the Resurrection:

(1) "Those which are sent forth in succession, or for a good cause;"

(2) "those which blow violently and tempestuously

(3) "those which disperse and scatter;"

(4) "those which split and separate;" and

(5) "those which inspire the remembrance." As these words only describe the characteristics and it has not been specified what thing or things they qualify, this has given rise to a difference of opinion among the commentators as to whether these are the qualities of one particular thing or of different things and what the thing or things are. One group of them says that all the five qualify the winds; the second group says that all the five imply the angels; the third group says that the first three imply the winds and the remaining two the angels; the fourth says that the first two imply the winds and the other three the angels; another group has opined that the first quality implies the angels of mercy, the second the angels of punishment and the remaining three imply the verses of the Qur'an.

In our opinion, the first thing worthy of consideration is that when five characteristic have been mentioned continuously in one and the same context and there is no indication to show as to what has been qualified up to a certain point and where from has the qualification of another thing begun, it cannot be correct, on the basis of a baseless conjecture, to understand that in these verses oaths have been sworn by two or three different things. Rather in this case the continuity of the subject by itself requires that the whole passage be regarded as related to the characteristics of one and the same thing. Secondly, wherever in the Qur'an an oath bas been sworn by a certain thing or, things in order to convince the doubters or deniers of an unseen truth, there the oath stands for an argument or reasoning which is meant to tell that the thing or things point to the truth's being right and correct. For this purpose obviously it cannot be correct to present one imperceptible thing as an argument for another imperceptible thing; for, only a perceptible thing can be presented as an argument for an imperceptible thing. Hence in our opinion the correct explanation is that it implies the winds and the explanation of the people who interpret the five things to mean the angels cannot; be acceptable, for the angels are as imperceptible as is the occurrence of the Resurrection.

Now, let us consider as to how these different states of winds point to the occurrence of the Resurrection. One of the most important factor which has made animal and vegetable life possible on the earth is the air. The relationship its qualities bear with every kind of life testify that there is an all-powerful, All-Wise Creator, Who willed to create life on this earth and for this purpose created here a thing whose qualities exactly and precisely correspond to the requirements of the existence of living beings. Then, He did not only wrap up the earth in the air and left it alone, but by His power and wisdom characterized this air with countless different states, which are being regulated since millions and millions of years in such a way that they cause the change of seasons and weather sometimes it is close and sometimes a soft breeze blows sometimes it is hot and sometimes cold; sometimes it brings clouds and sometimes it drives away clouds; sometimes it causes pleasant gusts to blow and sometimes disastrous windstorms; sometimes it brings beneficial rains and sometimes there is drought; in short, there are different 'kinds of winds which blow in their own time, and every kind serves one or the other purpose. This arrangement is the proof of a dominant Power, for which neither it can be impossible to bring life into existence, nor to obliterate it, nor to re-create it after having annihilated it. Likewise, this arrangement is also a proof of a supreme wisdom about which only a foolish man could think that all this was being done for fun, without any higher object in view. As against this wonderful system man is so helpless that he can neither cause a favorable wind to blow for himself, nor can prevent a disastrous cyclone from blowing on himself. However shameless, obstinate and stubborn he may be, the wind does at one time or another remind him that a Mighty Sovereign is ruling over him, Who can turn this principal means of his life into a cause of blessing for him or into a cause of ruin for him whenever He so likes, and man does not have the power to prevent or avert any of His decisions. (For further explanation, see E.N. 7 of Al-Jathiyah, E.N.'s 1 to 4 of Adh-Dhariyat).

Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs

And from his narration on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that he said concerning the interpretation of Allah's saying (By the emissaries, (sent) one after another): '(By the emissaries, (sent) one after another) He says: Allah swears by the many angels who are sent one after another, just like horses follow one another; it is also said that these are the angels who are sent with the good, i.e. Gabriel, Michael and Seraphiel.