Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(He it is who did create you from a single soul) the soul of Adam alone, (and therefrom did make his mate) and from the soul of Adam he created his wife Eve (that he might take rest in her) with her. (And when he covered her) and when he made love to her (she bore a light burden, and she passed (unnoticed) with it) she stood up and sat down because of pain, (but when it became heavy) when the child became heavy in her womb, they thought, because of Satan's whispering, that it was a beast (they cried unto Allah, their Lord, saying: If thou givest unto us aright) if you give us a sound human being (we shall be of the thankful) for it.
He it is who created you from one soul and made of it its spouse so that it may rest in her.
Great and magnificent is the lovingly kind Lord, the beautiful in name, the keeper of the servants, the creator of the world's folk, the caretaker of all! He is pure and faultless in name and mark, pure of offspring and Himself unborn, pure of partner and helper, pure of spouse and of similar. When He created the creatures, He created them as pairs linked to each other. He made male and female
together, He bound similar to similar and genus to genus, as He says, " and made of it its spouse, so that it may rest in her. "
It is God who is one, who is peerless in attributes and separate from faults, the creator, the keeper, and the nurturer. When He wants to show power in creation, He brings forth a hundred thousand subtleties and wonders from one drop of feeble water. First some dust, then some water, then a clot, then tissue, then bones and skin, then an animal. When it becomes four months old, it comes to life in that firm settledness [77:21] in three-fold darknesses [39:6].
In this individual He creates three pools: one the brain, one the liver, and one the heart. From the brain the streams of the nerves open out to the whole body so that the strength of sensation and movement will go there. From the liver the veins open out to the whole body so that nourishment will go there. From the heart the arteries open out to the whole body so that the spirit will go there. He created the brain in three strata. In the first He placed understanding, in the second He placed intellect, and in the third memory. He created the eye in seven strata and placed brightness and sight therein. What is more wondrous is the pupil, its measure that of a single lentil, but within it appears the form of heaven and earth with all this vastness. More surprising is the forehead, which He created stiff and hard so that it would not grow hair and take away beauty. In the midst He created the skin of the eyebrow, so that a bit of hair would come up and not become too long.
He created the ears, a bitter water placed within so that no animal would go inside. He created within it many twists and turns so that, if you are asleep and the crawling things of the earth aim for it, the road will be long and you will become aware. He put the tongue in the place of saliva so it would move and you would not be held back from speaking. He made a spring of sweet water come forth from under the tongue so that it would give water in a flow and food would become wet. Otherwise, food would not go down the throat. At the top of the gullet He created a veil so that when you take down food, the top of the gullet closes so that food will not go down by the route of the breath. He created the liver to give all the multicolored foods one attribute in the color of
blood, so that this would be the nourishment of the seven bodily parts.
Pure and faultless is the Lord who made apparent all this artisanry from one drop of feeble water! He showed so many wonders and marvels of power! When you think about it you will say, " So blessed is God, the most beautiful of creators! " [23:14]. Bravo O beautiful doing, lovelysculpting Creator!
He sculpted the body and He sculpted the heart. When He sculpted the body, He praised Himself. He said, " So blessed is God, the most beautiful of creators. " When He sculpted the heart, He praised you, for He said, " Those-they are the rightly guided " [49:7]. In the beginningless knowledge and endless decree, it has gone out on the Pen that He will turn some faces away. When He arrived at sculpting the faces, He said, " He sculpted beautifully. " He praised the Sculptor, not the sculpture, for if He had praised the sculpture, it would not be permissible for Him to scour it away, for the generous one does not efface what He Himself praised; He does not reject the one whom He Himself has lifted up. When He reached the heart, He praised the sculpture, not the Sculptor, so you would know that He will never efface the sculpture of the heart.
He, that is, God, it is Who created you from a single soul, namely, Adam, and made, created, from him his spouse, Eve, that he might take rest in her, and become intimate with her. Then, when he covered her, when he had sexual intercourse with her, she bore a light burden, namely, the sperm-drop, and moved to and fro with it, that is, she came and went [easily] on account of its lightness; but when she became heavy, because of the child growing inside her, and they became anxious that it should be a dumb child, they cried to God their Lord, ‘If You give us one, a child, that is sound, unimpaired, we indeed shall be of the thankful’, to You for it.
(O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you with Allah is that (believer) who has Taqwa) 49:13, and,
(And among His Signs is this, that He created for you wives (spouses) from among yourselves, that you may find repose in them, and He has put between you affection and mercy.) 30:21 Indeed, there is no intimacy between two souls like that between the spouses. This is why Allah mentioned that the sorcerer might be able with his trick to separate between a man and his wife thus indicating the difficulty of separating them in normal circumstances. Allah said next,
(When he covered her) meaning had sexual intercourses with her.
حَمَلَتْ حَمْلاً خَفِيفًا
(she became pregnant and she carried it about lightly) in reference to the first stage of pregnancy when the woman does not feel pain, for at that time, the fetus will be just a Nutfah (the mixture of the male and female discharge), then becomes an `Alaqah (a piece of thick coagulated blood) and then a Mudghah (a small lump of flesh). Allah said next,
(and she carried it about), she continued the pregnancy, according to Mujahid. It was reported that Al-Hasan, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i and As-Suddi said similarly. Maymun bin Mahran reported that his father said, "She found the pregnancy unnoticeable.'' Ayyub said, "I asked Al-Hasan about the Ayah,
(and she carried it about) and he said, `Had you been an Arab, you would know what it means! It means that she continued the pregnancy through its various stages.''' Qatadah said,
(and she carried it about (lightly).), means, it became clear that she was pregnant. Ibn Jarir commented, "This Ayah means that the liquid remained, whether she stood up or sat down.'' Al-`Awfi recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "The semen remained in, but she was unsure if she became pregnant or not,
(Then when it became heavy), she became heavier with the fetus'', As-Suddi said, "The fetus grew in her womb.''
(they both invoked Allah, their Lord (saying): "If You give us a Salih child,) if he is born human in every respect. Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas commented, "They feared that their child might be born in the shape of an animal!'' while Abu Al-Bakhtri and Abu Malik commented, "They feared that their newborn might not be human.'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri also commented, "If You (Allah) give us a boy.''
(we shall indeed be among the grateful. But when He gave them a Salih child, they ascribed partners to Him (Allah) in that which He has given to them. High be Allah, Exalted above all that they ascribe as partners to Him.) 7:189-190 Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-Hasan commented on this part of the Ayah,
جَعَلاَ لَهُ شُرَكَآءَ فِيمَآ ءَاتَـهُمَا
(they ascribed partners to Him (Allah) in that which He has given to them) "This occurred by followers of some religion, not from Adam or Hawwa'.'' Al-Hasan also said, "This Ayah refers to those among the offspring of Adam who fell into Shirk,
جَعَلاَ لَهُ شُرَكَآءَ فِيمَآ ءَاتَـهُمَا
(they ascribed partners to Him (Allah) in that which He has given to them.)'' Qatadah said, "Al-Hasan used to say that it refers to the Jews and Christians. Allah gave them children, and they turned them into Jews and Christians.'' The explanations from Al-Hasan have authentic chains of narration leading to him, and certainly, it is one of the best interpretations. This Ayah should therefore be understood this way, for it is apparent that it does not refer to Adam and Hawa', but about the idolators among their offspring. Allah mentioned the person first Adam and Hawwa' and then continued to mention the species mankind, many of whom committed Shirk. There are similar cases in the Qur'an. For cases, Allah said
(And indeed We have adorned the nearest heaven with lamps) It is well-known that the stars that were made as lamps in the sky are not the same as the shooting missiles that are thrown at the devils mentioned later in the Ayah. There are similar instances in the Qur'an. Allah knows best.
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
In order to understand this passage, it should be kept in mind that it criticizes the pagan Arabs for associating partners with Allah in the matter of the birth of children. They have been told to remember that the first man and his mate were brought into being by Allah: and they could not deny this. Then they also knew that it is He Who has arranged the birth of human beings after the first pair: that it is He by Whose will a woman becomes pregnant and who nourishes the child in her womb in a wonderful manner, and that it is He Who imbues it with a sound body and sound mind with various powers and capabilities and lets it come out as a healthy human being. They could not deny that all this is in the power of Allah alone. If Allah willed, He could have created a monkey, a serpent or any other animal in her womb or made the child deformed or physically or mentally defective. They knew that no one had the power to make any change in Allah's creation. That is why all their hopes were centred in Allah during the period of pregnancy and prayers were invoked for the birth of a perfect child. But it is an irony that the pagans as well as the Believers change their whole attitude after the birth of a child, and, instead of being grateful to Allah, they make their grateful offerings to some god or goddess or saint or the like and give such names as smack of shirk-Pir Bakhsh, "Favor of the Saint," or Abdur-Rasul, "Servant of the Prophet" etc.
Though the passage is quite clear, yet a misunderstanding has arisen about it, which has been supported by weak traditions. The mention of the first man and woman (Adam and Eve) in the beginning, and immediately after it of a man and a woman, has led to the confusion that both the pairs were one and the same. Therefore some commentators were of the opinion that the man was Adam and the woman who became pregnant was Eve and that they prayed to Allah for their child in the womb, but when it was born, they associated others with Allah in this favor. Then, with the help of weak traditions they concocted a complete story about it: When several children of Eve died soon after their birth, Satan came to her at the birth of one, and seduced her saying, "If you give him the name of `Abdul Harith, the servant of Satan, he will survive." It is all the more regrettable that some of these traditions have been linked up to the Holy Prophet. But the fact is that all these traditions are unauthentic and are not supported by the wording of the Qur'an and by the context in which they occur. The Qur'an criticizes the pagans for associating others with Allah in the matter of birth, when they themselves acknowledge that it is He Who is the Creator of the children which are born as a result of the cohabitation of a man and a woman. That is why they also invoke Allah for the safe delivery of the child; when they are not sure of the perfection of the child. But after the safe delivery of a sound child, they turn to others with gratitude and offerings. It is thus clear that it is not any particular man and woman who have been admonished for their behavior, but every man and every woman, (including pagan men and women) who behave like that.
In this connection it should also be noted that the condition of the present-day Muslims is even worse than that of the pagan Arabs whom the Qur'an has condemned in this passage. They committed shirk after the delivery of the child, though before this they prayed to Allah for the child. But the Muslims of today, who claim to be the bearers of the creed of Tauhid, go far beyond this. These wretched people pray to others even for the birth of a child and make vows to others during the period of pregnancy, and after the delivery of the child make offerings to the associates they set up with Allah. Yet they consider those Arabs as pagans who deserved Hell, and themselves as Believers in One Allah, for whom Paradise has been guaranteed!
This is to show the helplessness of the deities of the pagans. Not to speak of guiding their worshipers to the Right Way, they themselves are unable to follow the guidance of others. So much so that they cannot give any answer to the call of any one.
It is obvious that here they are being criticized for one of the three kinds of shirk they practiced. First, they worshiped idols, images or some other symbols of the objects of their worship. The second kind of shirk was the worship of some persons or spirits which were represented by idols, pictures, etc. The third kind of shirk consisted of the wrong creeds that were the basis of these practices of shirk. All the three kinds of practices have been criticized severely in the Qur'an at different places. Here it condemns the idols before which the pagan Arabs performed their religious rituals and presented their supplications and made their offerings.
(He it is Who did create you from a single soul…) [7:189] up to (… but are themselves created) [7:191]. Said Mujahid: “Initially, all the children of Adam and Eve died in their infancy. And so, Satan whispered to them: 'If a boy is born to you, call him 'Abd al-Harith [the slave of al-Harith]'. The name of Satan was, prior to that, al-Harith. Adam and Eve did as he asked them to do, hence the words of Allah, exalted is He: (But when He gave unto them aright, they ascribed to Him partners in respect of that which He had given them…)”.