Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
And from his narration on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that he said about the interpretation of Allah's saying (All that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth glorifieth Allah): '(All that is in the heavens) of created beings (and all that is in the earth) of creatures and living beings (glorifies Allah) prays to Allah; and it is also said this means: remembers Allah, (the Sovereign Lord) the Eternal whose sovereignty does not perish, (the Holy One) the Pure who has no son or partner, (the Mighty) the All-Conquering in His sovereignty and in His retribution against those who disbelieve in Him, (the Wise) in His command and decree, and He has decreed that none should be worshipped but Him.
Everything in the heavens and the earth glorifies God, the King, the Holy, the Exalted, the Wise.
He is the King, the Owner, the Owner of the Kingdom, and the King of Kings. The king in reality is He, for His kingship has no removal, His seriousness no levity, His exaltedness no abasement, His decree no rejection. He has no peer, and from Him there is no escape.
When the faithful, believing servant comes to know that the owner in reality is He, he will break the tablet of making claims, roll up the carpet of folly, pull his skirt back from the two worlds, surrender possessions and the kingdom to the Absolute Owner, and consider His desire prior to his own desire. He will be ashamed to abase himself before any created thing or to bend his upright neck for the sake of a grain or a mouthful. “He who aims for the ocean has no need for rivulets.”
“He who recognizes God will not put up with the abasement of the creatures.” Whoever knows the Real's majesty will not give himself over to creatures' abasing. The hand of his truthfulness will be held back from the two worlds, the foot of his love will always be in the road, his heart will be in the grasp of the King's exaltation, and his secret core will be the quarry of the secret of the Possessor of Majesty. On his forehead will be the mark of prosperity, in the eye of his certainty the light of taking heed of God's acts, in his nose the fragrance of the garden of union. People have states, pleasures, and names, but he is without states, pleasures, and names. What then has he lost? For tomorrow in the house of the afterworld he will be the nightingale of the garden of At-ness and the falcon of the mystery of unity.
Ḥallāj was asked about renunciation. He said, “Putting aside the enjoyment of this world is the soul's renunciation. Putting aside the bliss of the next world is the heart's renunciation. Abandoning one's own self in this road is the spirit's renunciation. Those who are renunciants in this world settle down in the abode of approval. Those who are renunciants in paradise settle down in the Palisades of Holiness. As for the group that renounce their own selfhoods, they will be snatched away by a flood in the valley of No god but God. There will be no news of them in this abode and no trace of them in that abode. They will settle down in the Pavilion of Jealousy with access to the dome of the Self-Sufficiency's proximity.”
All that is the heavens and all that is in the earth glorifies God, [all] proclaims His transcendence (the lām [of li’Llāhi] is extra; mā is used instead of min in order to indicate the predominance [of non-rational beings]), the King, the Holy, the One Who transcends what does not befit Him, the Mighty, the Wise, in His kingdom and in His actions.
Everything praises and glorifies Allah Allah states that everything in the heavens and the earth glo
Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,
وَإِن مِّن شَىْءٍ إِلاَّ يُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدَهِ
(Glorify Him and there is not a thing but glorifies His praise) (17:44) Allah said,
(the King, the Holy,) meaning that He is the Owner and King of the heavens and the earth Who has perfect control over their affairs. He is the Holy, free of all shortcomings, His attributes are perfect,
(the Almighty, the All-Wise.) whose explanation is already discussed in many places.
(And say to those who were given the Scripture and those who are illiterates: "Do you submit yourselves If they do, they are rightly guided; but if they turn away, your duty is only to convey the message; and Allah is All-Seer of (His) servants.) (3:20) Mentioning the unlettered ones in specific here does not mean that Muhammad was only sent to them, because the blessing to the Arabs is greater than that of other nations. In another Ayah, Allah said,
وَإِنَّهُ لَذِكْرٌ لَّكَ وَلِقَوْمِكَ
(And verily, this is indeed a Reminder for you and your people) (43:44). Surely, the Qur'an is also a reminder for those other than Arabs to take heed. Allah the Exalted said,
وَأَنذِرْ عَشِيرَتَكَ الاٌّقْرَبِينَ
(And warn your tribe of near kindred.) (26:214) These Ayat do not negate Allah's statements,
(But those of the groups that reject it, the Fire will be their promised meeting place.) (11:17) There are other Ayat that indicate that his Message is universal. He, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him, was sent to all people, mankind and the Jinns alike. We mentioned this meaning before in Surat Al-An`am producing various Ayat and Hadiths. All praise and thanks are to due to Allah. This Ayah testifies that Allah has indeed accepted the invocation of His friend Ibrahim when he supplicated Allah to send a Messenger to the people of Makkah from among them their own. One who will recite to them Allah's statements, purify them and teach them the Book and the Hikmah. So, Allah -- all praise and thanks be to Him -- sent him when the Messengers ceased and the way was obscure. Indeed it was a time when it was most needed. Especially since Allah hated the people of the earth, Arabs and non-Arabs alike, except for a few of the People of the Scripture, who kept to the true faith Allah the Exalted sent to `Isa bin Maryam, peace be upon him. This is why Allah said,
(He it is Who sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger from among themselves, reciting to them His Ayat, purifying them, and teaching them the Book and the Hikmah. And verily, they had been before in manifest error.) In ancient times, the Arabs used to adhere by the religion of Ibrahim, peace be upon him. They later changed, corrupted and contradicted it, choosing polytheism instead of Tawhid and doubts instead of certainty. They invented a religion that Allah did not legislate, just as the People of the Scriptures did when they changed and corrupted their Divine Books. Allah sent Muhammad, with a great divine legislation, perfect religion that is suitable for all humans and Jinns. In it, there is guidance and explanations of all that they need in this life and the Hereafter. It draws them closer to Paradise and Allah's pleasure and takes them away from the Fire and earning Allah's anger. In it, there is the final judgement for all types of doubts and suspicion for all major and minor matters of the religion. In Muhammad, Allah gathered all the good qualities of the Prophets before him, and gave him what He has never given the earlier and later generations of mankind. May Allah's peace and blessings be on Muhammad until the Day of Judgement.
Muhammad is the Messenger to Arabs and Non-Arabs alike
(And others among them who have not yet joined them. And He is the Almighty, the All-Wise.) Imam Abu `Abdullah Al-Bukhari, may Allah have mercy upon him, recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, "We were sitting with the Prophet, when Surat Al-Jumu`ah was revealed to him;
وَءَاخَرِينَ مِنْهُمْ لَمَّا يَلْحَقُواْ بِهِمْ
(And others among them who have not yet joined them.) They said, `Who are they, O Allah's Messenger' The Prophet did not reply until they repeated the question thrice. At that time, Salman Al-Farisi was with us. So Allah's Messenger placed his hand on Salman, saying,
(If faith were on Ath-Thurayya (Pleiades), even then some men or a man from these people would attain it.)'' Muslim, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa`i, Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir collected this Hadith. This Hadith indicates that Surat Al-Jumu`ah was revealed in Al-Madinah and that the Messenger's Message is universal. The Prophet explained Allah's statement,
(And others among them) by mentioning Persia. This is why the Prophet sent messages to the kings of Persia and Rome, among other kings, calling them to Allah the Exalted and to follow what he was sent with. This is why Mujahid and several others said that Allah's statement,
وَءَاخَرِينَ مِنْهُمْ لَمَّا يَلْحَقُواْ بِهِمْ
(And others among them who have not yet joined them.) refers to all non-Arabs who believe in the truth of the Prophet. Allah's statement,
وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ
(And He is the Almighty, the All-Wise.) asserts that He is Almighty and All-Wise in His legislation and the destiny He appoints. Allah's statement,
(That is the grace of Allah, which He bestows on whom He wills. And Allah is the Owner of mighty grace.) refers to the great prophethood that He granted Muhammad and the qualities that He favored his Ummah with, by sending Muhammad to them.
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
For explanation, sec E.N.'s 1, 2 of Surah AI-Hadid, and E.N.'s 36, 37, 41 of Surah AI-Hashr above. This introduction bears a deep relevance to the theme that follows. In spite of the fact that the Jews of Arabia were witnessing clear signs of Prophethood in the person of the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) and his high character and works and in spite of the clear good news given by the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) in the Torah, which only applied to him, they were denying him only because they did not want to acknowledge the prophet hood of a person who did not belong to their own community and race. They openly proclaimed that they would believe only in that which had come to them, and would not accept any teaching, which came through a non-Israelite prophet, even if it was from God. For this attitude in the following verses they have been reproved. Hence the reason for beginning the discourse with the introductory sentence. First, it says that everything in the universe is glorifying Allah; that is, the entire universe testifies that Allah is free from all those faults and weaknesses because of which the Jews have formed the concept of their racial superiority. He is not related to anyone: He has nothing to do with favoritism: He treats all His creatures with equal justice, mercy and care. No particular race and nation is His favorite so that He may be bound to bless it whatever it may do; and He is not prejudiced against any race or nation so that He may deprive it of His bounties even if it possesses all the good qualities. Then, it says that He is the Sovereign; that is, no worldly power can restrict His authority and powers, as if to say: "You, O Jews, are His servants and subjects. 'It is not for you to decide whom He should appoint His Messenger, and whom He should not, for your guidance. " Then it says that He is Holy; that is, HE is far exalted and glorified that His judgments may be mistaken. Human judgments may have mistakes but His decrees are perfect. In the end, two more attributes of Allah have been mentioned: that He is All-Mighty, i.e. none can fight Him and win and that He is All-Wist, i.e. whatever He does, it is always the very demand of wisdom, and His plans and designs are so well-planned that none in the world can hinder and frustrate them.