51 - Adh Dhariyat (The scatterers)

2 Tafsir(s) related to verse 51.60

Ibn Al Kathir

All Messengers met the Same Type of Denial from Their Nations

Allah comforts His Prophet by saying to Him, `just as these idolators denied you, the disbelievers of old used the same words with their Messengers,'

كَذَلِكَ مَآ أَتَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ مِّن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ قَالُواْ سَـحِرٌ أَوْ مَجْنُونٌ

(Likewise, no Messenger came to those before them but they said: "A sorcerer or a madman!'') Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

أَتَوَاصَوْاْ بِهِ

(Have they transmitted this saying to these), meaning, have those of the past taught these words to the people of the present

بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ طَـغُونَ

(Nay, they are themselves a people transgressing beyond bounds!) They are tyrannical people whose hearts are the same. Therefore, the latter said the same as those before them have said. Allah the Exalted said,

فَتَوَلَّ عَنْهُمْ

(So turn away from them,) meaning, `O Muhammad, turn away from the Quraysh idolators,'

فَمَآ أَنتَ بِمَلُومٍ

(you are not blameworthy.) meaning, `We blame you not if you turn away from them,'

وَذَكِّرْ فَإِنَّ الذِّكْرَى تَنفَعُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

(And remind, for verily, the reminding profits the believers.) meaning, for only the believing hearts benefit from being reminded.

Allah Only created Mankind and Jinns to worship Him Alone

Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالإِنسَ إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ

(And I created not the Jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me.) meaning, `I, Allah, only created them so that I order them to worship Me, not that I need them.' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah,

إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ

(...except that they should worship Me.) meaning, "So that they worship Me, willingly or unwillingly.'' Allah the Exalted said,

مَآ أُرِيدُ مِنْهُم مِّن رِّزْقٍ وَمَآ أُرِيدُ أَن يُطْعِمُونِ - إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الرَّزَّاقُ ذُو الْقُوَّةِ الْمَتِينُ

(I seek not any provision from them nor do I ask that they should feed Me. Verily, Allah is the All-Provider, Owner of power, the Most Strong.) Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, "The Messenger of Allah taught the following: (إنِّي أَنَا الرَّزَّاقُ ذُو الْقُوَّةِ الْمَتِين) `Verily, I am the Provider, Owner of power, the Most Strong.' Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i also collected this Hadith. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih. '' The meaning of this Ayah (51:56) is that, Allah the Exalted, the Blessed created the creatures so that they worship Him Alone without partners. Those who obey Him will be rewarded with the best rewards, while those who disobey Him will receive the worst punishment from Him. Allah stated that He does not need creatures, but rather, they are in need of Him in all conditions. He is alone their Creator and Provider. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

«قَالَ اللهُ تَعَالَى: يَاابْنَ آدَمَ تَفَرَّغْ لِعِبَادَتِي أَمْلَأْ صَدْرَكَ غِنًى وَأَسُدَّ فَقْرَكَ، وَإِلَّا تَفْعَلْ، مَلَأْتُ صَدْرَكَ شُغْلًا وَلَمْ أَسُدَّ فَقْرَك»

(Allah the Exalted said, "O Son of Adam! Busy yourself in worshipping Me, and I will fill your chest with riches and dissipate your meekness. Otherwise, I will fill your chest with distracting affairs and will not do away with your meekness.'') At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah collected this Hadith and At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Gharib.'' The statement of Allah the Exalted,

فَإِنَّ لِلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ ذَنُوباً

(And verily, for those who do wrong, there is a portion), indicates that they will receive their due share of the torment,

مِّثْلَ ذَنُوبِ أَصْحَـبِهِمْ فَلاَ يَسْتَعْجِلُونِ

(like the evil portion (which came for) their likes (of old); so let them not ask Me to hasten on!) let them not ask that the punishment is rushed to them, for it will surely come,

فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِن يَوْمِهِمُ الَّذِى يُوعَدُونَ

(Then woe to those who disbelieve from their Day which they have been promised.) meaning, the Day of Resurrection. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Adh-Dhariyat; all praise is due to Allah and all the favors come from Him Alone.

Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an

That is, "I have not created them for the service of others but for My own service. They should serve Me, for I am their Creator. When no one else has created them, no one else has the right that they should serve him; and how can it be admissible for them that they should serve others instead of Me, their Creator?" Here, the question arises that Allah Almighty is not the Creator only of the jinn and men but of the entire Universe and of every thing in it. Then, why has it been said only about the jinn and men that He has not created them for the service of others but of Himself ? whereas every single creature is there to serve Allah. The answer is: On the earth only the jinn and men have been granted the freedom that they may serve Allah within their sphere of choice if they so like; otherwise they can turn away from Allah's service as well as serve others beside Hun. The rest of the creatures in the world do not have this kind of freedom. They do not have any choice whatever that they may not worship and serve Allah, or may serve any other. Therefore, only about the jinn and men it has been said here that by turning away from the obedience and servitude of their Creator within the bounds of their option and choice and by serving others than the Creator, they are fighting their own nature. They should know that they have not been created for the service of any other but the Creator, and for them the right way is that they should not abuse the freedom granted them, but within the bounds of this freedom also they should serve God voluntarily just as every particle of their body is serving Him involuntarily in the sphere where they have not been granted any freedom,

The word `ibadat (service, worship) in this verse has not been used in the sense of only prayer, fasting and other kinds of such worship so that one may understand that the jinn and men have been created only for performing the Prayer, observing the Fast and for praising and glorifying Allah. Although this sense also is included in it, this is not its complete sense. Its complete sense is that the jinn and men have not been created for the worship, obedience and carrying out of the orders of any other but Allah. They are not there to bow to any other, to carry out the orders of any other, to live in fear of any other, to follow the religion enjoined by any other, to look upon any other as the maker and destroyer of ones destiny, and to supplicate any other than Allah for help. (For further explanation, see E.N. 63 of Surah Saba, E.N. 2 of Az-Zumar, E.N. 30 of A1 Jathiyah).

Another thing that incidentally becomes quilt obvious from this verse is that the jinn arc a separate and independent creation from men. This brings out the error of the thinking of those people, who assert that sonic people from among mankind have been called the jinn in the Qur'an. This same thing is also confirmed and testified by the following verses of the Qur'an: AI-An'am :100, 128, AI-A`raf, 38, 179, Hud: 119, AI-Hijr: 27 to 33, Bani Isra`il: 88, AI-Kahf: S0, As-Sajdah: 13, Saba: 41, Suad: 75, 76, Ha Mim As-Sajdah: 25, AI-Ahqaf: 18, Ar-Rahman: 15, 39, 56. (For a complete discussion of this question, see E. N. 21 of AI-Anbiya', E.N.'s 23, 45 of An-Naml, E.N. 24 of Saba).

That is, "I do not stand in need of any kind of help from the jinn and men: that My Godhead would not function if they did not worship Me: that I would be no more God if they turned away from My service. I indeed do not stand in need of their service, but it is the demand of their own nature that they should serve Me. They have been created for this very object, and fighting nature would be to their own detriment."

And in saying: "I do not ask any sustenance of them nor do I ask them to feed Me," there is a subtle hint to this Those whom the people who have turned away from God worship in the world, worship, indeed, stand in need of these their worshipers. If they do not help sustain their godhead, it would not function even for a day. The gods do not provide for the worshipers but the worshipers provide for the gods instead. The gods do not feed them but they feed the gods instead. The gods do not protect them but the worshipers protect the gods instead. The worshipers, in fact, are their army through whom their godhead functions. Wherever the worshipers of the, false gods have ceased to exist, or the worshipers have given up their worship, the gods have lost all their pomp and glory and the world has seen how helpless they have become. Of all the deities Allah Almighty is the only real Deity Whose Godhead is functioning by His own power and might, Who does not take anything from His servants, but He alone gives His servants everything.

The word matin as used in the original means strong and stable whom nobody can shake and move.

"Those,...... wrong" Those who have violated the reality and the truth and their own nature The context itself shows that `those who have done wrong", here implies the people who are serving others than the Lord of the Universe, who disbelieve in the Hereafter, who regard themselves as irresponsible in the world, and have denied those Prophets who have tried to make them understand the reality.

This is the answer to the disbelievers' demand: "Why doesn't the Day of Retribution Overtake us? Why is it being delayed?"