and the heaven, we built it with might, and indeed we are powerful (one says āda’l-rajulu or ya’īdu, to mean, ‘he is strong’; and awsa‘a’l-rajulu, to mean, ‘he has become capable [dhū sa‘a] and strong’).
proofs of allah's oneness abound in the creation of the heavens and the earth
allah reminds us of the creating of the higher and lower worlds,
(we constructed the heaven.) meaning, `we made it as a high roof, protected from falling,'
(with hands), meaning, with strength, according to `abdullah bin `abbas, mujahid, qatadah, ath-thawri and several others,
(verily, we are able to extend the vastness of space thereof.) means, `we made it vast and we brought its roof higher without pillars to support it, and thus it is hanging independently.'
(and we have made the earth a firash), meaning, `we have made it a resting place for the created,'
(how excellent a spreader (thereof) are we!), meaning, `we spread it for its inhabitants,'
وَمِن كُلِّ شَىْءٍ خَلَقْنَا زَوْجَيْنِ
(and of everything we have created pairs,) meaning, all the created are in pairs, the heaven and earth, night and day, sun and moon, land and sea, light and darkness, faith and disbelief, death and life, misery and happiness, paradise and fire, in addition to the animals and plants. the statement of allah the exalted,
(that you may remem- ber.) and know that the creator, allah, is one without partners,
فَفِرُّواْ إِلَى اللَّهِ
(so, flee to allah.) meaning, seek shelter with him and trust in him in all of your affairs,
(verily, i am a plain warner to you from him. and set not up any other god along with allah.) do not associate any partners with him,
إِنِّى لَكُمْ مِّنْهُ نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ
(verily, i am a plain warner to you from him.)
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
after presenting historical arguments 'for the hereafter, now arguments from the universe are being presented in proof of the same.
the word must' (pl. musi'un) may mean the one who possesses power and means, and also the one who can extend and expand something. according to the first meaning, the verse would mean: "we have built this heaven by our own might and not with somebody else's help, and its erection was in no way beyond us. then how can you ever conceive that we shall not be able to recreate it ?" according to the second meaning, it would mean: "this huge universe that we have created, is not a finished work, but we are expanding it continuously, and new and ever new manifestations of our creation are appearing in it every moment. how do you then think that such a marvelous creator would not be able to repeat his creation.
for explanation, sec e.n. 18 above. for further explanation, sec e.n. 74 of surah an-naml, e.n. 29 of surah ya sin and e.n.'s 7 to 10 of azzukhruf
that is, "everything in the world has been created on the principle of the pairs. the whole system of the universe is functioning on the principle that certain things arc complementary and matching to certain others, and their combination brings into being countless new forms and combinations. nothing here is so unique as may have no match, for the fact is that a thing becomes productive only after it has combined with its matching partner. " (for further explanation, sec e.n. 31 of surah ya sin, and' e.n. 12 of az-zukhruf).
that is, "the erection of the whole universe on the principle of the pairs and the existence of all things in the world in couples is a reality that testifies. expressly to the necessity of the hereafter. if you consider it deeply you will yourself come to the conclusion that when everything in the world has a partner and nothing becomes productive without combining with its partner, how can the life of the world be without a match and partner? its match and partner necessarily is the hereafter. without that partner it would be absolutely fruitless."
to understand what follows one should also understand that the discussion heretofore centers around the hereafter, but this very discussion and. argument afford a proof of the oneness of god. just as the argument of the rain, the structure of the earth, the creation of the heavens, man's own existence, the wonderful working of the law of pairs in the universe, testify to the possibility and necessity of the hereafter, so they are also testifying that neither is this godless nor it has many gods, but one all-wise and all-powerful god alone is its creator and master and controller. that is why in the following verses the invitation to the oneness of god is being presented on the basis of these very arguments. furthermore, the inevitable result of believing in the hereafter is that man should give up his attitude of rebellion against god and should adopt the way of obedience and servitude. he remains turned away from god as long as he remains involved in the false belief that he is not accountable before anyone and that he will not have to render an account of his deeds of the worldly life to anyone. whenever this misunderstanding is removed, man immediately comes to the realization that he was committing a grave error by regarding himself as irresponsible, and this realization compels him to return to god. that is why immediately after concluding the arguments for the hereafter, it has been said: "so flee unto allah."
though these sentences are the word of allah, the speaker here is not allah but the holy messenger of allah. in fact, allah has made his messenger say: "flee unto allah: i am warning you from him." an instance of this style is found in the very first surah of the qur'an, surah al-fatihah, where the word is of allah, but the speakers are the servants, who say: iyyaka na `budu wa lyyaka nasta 'in; ihdi-nas sirat al-mustaqim: "thee alone we worship and to thee alone we pray for help. show us the straight way." just as there it has not been said: "o believers, pray to your lord thus," but the context itself shows that it is a supplication which allah is teaching his servants, so here also it has not been said; "o prophet, say to these people,".but the context itself indicates that it is an invitation to the oneness of god, which the holy prophet is presenting according to allah's command. besides surah al-fatihah, there are several other instances also of this style in the qur'an, where though the word is of allah, the speakers somewhere are the angels and somewhere the holy prophet, and the context shows as through whom allah is speaking at that particular place. for instance, see surah maryam: 64-65, as-saaffat :159-167, ash-shu`ara': 10.