Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(Therefore) O Muhammad (bear with what they say) bear with the lies of the Jews; it is also said this means: bear with what the deriders say; these are five people whom we have already mentioned somewhere else: (and hymn the praise of thy Lord) pray by the command of your Lord (before the rising) this is the morning prayer (and before the setting of the sun) these are the Zuhr and 'Asr prayers;
So endure [patiently], addressing the Prophet (s), what they, the Jews and others, say, in the way of [anthropomorphic] comparisons and denials, and glorify with praise of your Lord, perform prayers with praise [of Him], before the rising of the sun, in other words, [perform] the morning prayer, and before the sunset, that is to say, [perform] both the midday and the afternoon prayers;
Warning the Disbelievers of the imminent Torment; commanding the Prophet to pray and have Patience
Allah the Exalted asks, `how many We have destroyed before these denying disbelievers'
مِّن قَرْنٍ هُمْ أَشَدُّ مِنْهُم بَطْشاً
(a generation who were stronger in power than they.) they were more numerous, mightier than they and who constructed on the earth and built on it more than they. The statement of Allah the Exalted,
فَنَقَّبُواْ فِى الْبِلَـدِ هَلْ مِن مَّحِيصٍ
(And they went about the land! Could they find any place of refuge) Ibn `Abbas commented, "They left the traces throughout the land,'' Qatadah said, "They traveled throughout the land seeking provisions through trade and business, more than you have.'' Allah's statement,
هَلْ مِن مَّحِيصٍ
(Could they find any place of refuge) means, `could they find a shelter from Allah's decision and appointed destiny Have what they collected benefited them or averted Allah's torment when it came to them on account of their denial of the Messengers Likewise, you will never be able to avert, avoid, or find refuge or shelter (from His torment).' Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,
إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لَذِكْرَى
(Verily, therein is indeed a reminder) and a lesson,
لِمَن كَانَ لَهُ قَلْبٌ
(for him who has a heart) meaning, a sound understanding with which he comprehends, or, a good mind, according to Mujahid,
أَوْ أَلْقَى السَّمْعَ وَهُوَ شَهِيدٌ
(or gives ear while he is heedful.) meaning, he hears the speech, comprehends and understands it in his mind and grasps its indications with his intellect. Mujahid said that,
أَوْ أَلْقَى السَّمْعَ
(or gives ear), means, he does not talk to himself but listens with an attentive heart. Ad-Dahhak commented, "The Arabs would say that someone has given ear when he hears with his ears, while his heart is present and not absent.'' Ath-Thawri and several others said similarly. The statement of Allah the Exalted and Most Honored;
(And indeed We created the heavens and the earth and all that between them in six Days and nothing of fatigue touched Us.) is emphasis on the Resurrection because He Who is able to create the heavens and earth without fatigue, then surely He is able to resurrect the dead. Qatadah said, "The Jews, may Allah's curses descend on them, said that Allah created the heavens and earth in six days and then rested on the seventh day, which was the Sabbath. This is why they call it a holiday. Allah the Exalted then sent down denial of their statement and false opinion.'' Allah said, m
وَمَا مَسَّنَا مِن لُّغُوبٍ
(and nothing of fatigue touched Us.) indicating that no sleep, exhaustion or weariness affects Him. Allah the Exalted the Blessed said in other Ayat,
(and glorify the praises of your Lord, before the rising of the sun and before (its) setting.) There were two ordained prayers prior to the Isra' journey. One before the rising of the sun at dawn and the other before sunset in the evening. Qiyam Al-Layl, prayer at night, was a command for the Prophet and his followers for sometime but it was later abrogated for the Ummah. Later, during the Isra' journey, Allah abrogated all of the previous orders for prayer by ordaining five daily prayers, including the prayers of Fajr before sunrise, and `Asr in the late afternoon. Imam Ahmad recorded that Jarir bin `Abdullah said, "When we were sitting with the Prophet, he looked at the full moon and said,
(Certainly you will be brought before your Lord and will see Him as you see this moon, and you will have no trouble in seeing Him. So, if you can avoid missing the prayer before the sunrise and the prayer before sunset, you must do so.) He then recited Allah's statement,
(and glorify the praises of your Lord, before the rising of the sun and before (its) setting.)''' The Two Sahihs and the rest of the Group collected this Hadith through the chain of Isma`il. Allah the Exalted said,
وَمِنَ الَّيْلِ فَسَبِّحْهُ
(And during a part of the night glorify His praises), meaning pray to Him. Allah said Ayah,
(And in some parts of the night offer the Salah with it, as an additional prayer for you. It may be that your Lord will raise you to Maqam Mahmud.) (17:79) Ibn Abi Najih reported that Mujahid said that Ibn `Abbas said that,
(and after the prostrations.) refers to Tasbih, i.e. glorifying Allah's praises, after the prayers. There is a Hadith collected in the Two Sahihs that supports this meaning. Abu Hurayrah said, "Some poor migrants came and said, `O Allah's Messenger! The wealthy people will get higher grades and will have permanent enjoyment. ' The Prophet said,
(Why is that) They said, `They pray as we do, fast as we do, yet they give charity, but we can not. They free slaves, but we can not.' The Prophet said,
(Shall I tell you about something that, if you did it, you would catch up with those who have surpassed you and nobody would be better than you except those who would do the same Say, `Subhan Allah, Alhamdulillah and Allahu Akbar,' thirty-three times each after every prayer.) Later, they came back and said, `O Allah's Messenger! Our brethren, the wealthy Muslims, heard of what we did and they also did the same.' The Prophet said,
«ذلِكَ فَضْلُ اللهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَنْ يَشَاء»
(This is a favor and grace of Allah, and He grants it to whom He wills.)'' There is another way of explaining the Ayah. It is that Allah's statement,
(and after the prostrations.) refers to the two Rak`ahs after the Maghrib prayer. This was reported from `Umar bin Al-Khattab, `Ali bin Abi Talib and his son Al-Hasan, `Abdullah bin `Abbas, Abu Hurayrah and Abu Umamah, may Allah be pleased with them. This is also the saying of Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Ash-Sha`bi, An-Nakha`i, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah, and others.
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
For explanation, see E.N.'s 11 to 15 of the commentary of Surah Ha Mim As-Sajdah.
That is, "The fact of the matter is that We have made this entire Universe in six days and We did not become weary at the end so that We might be powerless to reconstruct it Now, if these ignorant people mock you when they hear the news of the life-after-death from you and call you a madman, have patience at it, listen to whatever nonsense they utter with a cool mind, and continue to preach the truth that you have been appointed to spread. "
In this verse, there is a subtle taunt on the Jews and the Christians as well, in whose Bible the story has been fabricated chat God made the earth and the heavens in six days and rested on the seventh day (Gen., 2: 2). Although the Christian priests are now feeling shy of it and have changed "rested" into “farigh hua” (ceased from working) in their Urdu translation of the Holy Bible, yet in King James Authorized Version of the Bible, the words"...and he rested on the seventh day" are still there, and the same words are also found in the translation that the Jews have published from Philadelphia in 1954. In the Arabic translation also the words are: fastraha ft! yaum as-sebi'.
This is the means by which man gets the power and energy to continue his struggle to raise the Word of the Truth and to call the people towards righteousness throughout life with full determination even though he may have to pass through heart-breaking and soul-destroying conditions and his efforts may seem to be bearing no fruit. Praising and glorifying the Lord implies the Prayer here, and wherever in the Qur'an the praise and glorification has been associated with specific times, it implies the Prayer. The Prayer "before sunrise" is the Fajr Prayer, and the Prayers "before sunset" are the 'Asr and the Zuhr Prayers. The Prayers in the night are the Maghrib and the `Isha` Prayers, and the third, the Tahajjud Prayer, is also included in the glorification of the night. (For explanation, see E.N. 111 of Ta Ha; E.N.'s 23, 24 of Ar-Rum). As for the glorification that has been commanded after "being free from prostrations", it may imply the after-Prayer devotions as well as the offering of the voluntary prayers at the end of the prescribed obligatory Prayers. Hadrat Umar, Hadrat 'Ali, Hadrat Hasan bin 'Ali, hadrat Abu Hurairah, Ibn `Abbas, Sha`bi, Mujahid, 'Ikrimah, Hasan Basri, Qatadah, Ibrahim Nakha`i and Auza'i say that it implies the two rak ats after the Maghrib Prayer. Hadrat `Abdullah bin `Amr bin 'As, and according to a tradition, Hadrat `Abdullah bin 'Abbas also, held the opinion that it implies the after-Prayer devotions, and Ibn Zaid says -that the object of this Command is that voluntary Prayers also should be offered after the prescribed obligatory Prayers.
According to a tradition reported in Bukhari and Muslim, on the authority of Hadrat Abu Hurairah, once the poor emigrants from Makkah came before the Ho]y Prophet, and said "O Messenger of Allah, the rich people have attained high ranks for themselves The Holy Prophet asked: What has happened ? They said: They offer the Prayers as we offer, and they observe the Fasts as we observe; but they practice charity, which we cannot, and they set the slaves free which we cannot. The Holy Prophet said: Should I tell you a thing which if you practiced, you would surpass all others, except those who practiced the same that you practiced? It is this that you should pronounce Subhan-Allah, al-Hamdu-lillah and Allah-u-Akbar, 33 times each after every Prayer. " After some time, the same people came and said: `Our rich brothers also have heard this and they too have started practicing, it." Thereupon the Holy Prophet said: "This is Allah's bounty and He bestows it on whomever He wills." According to a tradition these devotional words have to be repeated ten times each instead of 33 times each.
Hadrat Zaid bin Thabit has reported that the Holy Prophet instructed his Companions that they should pronounce Subhan-Allah and al Hamdu-lillah 33 times each and Allah-u-Akbar 34 times after every Prayer. Afterwards an Ansar Companion submitted: "I have seen in a vision that somebody was telling me that it would be better if I pronounced these three devotional words 25 times each and then La ilaha ill-Allah 25 times. The Holy Prophet replied: Well, you may do likewise." (Ahmad, Nasa'i, Darimi).
Hadrat Abu Said Khudri says: ¦I have heard the Holy Prophet pronounce the following words when he would return after the Praye rs were over: Subhana Rabbika Rabbil- `izzat-i `anima yasifun ' wa salam-un 'alal-mursalin, wal-hamdu lillah-i Rabb-il alamin. " (Jassas Ahkam al-Qur 'an).
Besides these, several other forms of the after-Prayer devotional pronouncements also have been reported from the Holy Prophet. Those who wish to act on this instruction of the Qur'an may select the one they find suitable from Mishkat.' Bab adh-dhikr 6a `d as-Salat, commit it to memory and practice it. Nothing can be better than what the Holy Prophet himself has taught in this regard. But what one should bear in mind is that the real object of the devotional pronouncements is not to utter these words only as a matter of course but to refresh and fix their meaning in the mind. Therefore, the meaning of whatever devotions one pronounces should be understood well and then practiced with full consciousness of the meaning.