Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(o ye who believe! if ye wed believing women) without naming the amount of their dowry (and divorce them before ye have touched them) before you had sexual intercourse with them, (then there is no period that ye should reckon) by counting the months or the periods of menstruation. (but content them) as is due by divorce by giving them at least a scarf or shawl (and release them handsomely) divorce them without any harm done to them.
o you who believe if you marry believing women and then divorce them before you have touched them (read tamassūhunna or tumāsūhunna) that is, before you have copulated with them, there shall be no [waiting] period for you to reckon against them, [no] waiting period [needed to preclude pregnancy] or otherwise. but provide for them, give them what they can use for [securing] comforts, in cases where no dowry has been fixed for them; otherwise theirs is to retain half of what was fixed, but no more — this is what ibn ‘abbās said and it is [the opinion] followed by al-shāfi‘ī’; and release them in a gracious manner, leave them be without [the intention to cause them any] harm.
a gift and no (iddah) for women who are divorced before consummation of the marriage
this ayah contains many rulings, including the use of the word nikah for the marriage contract alone. there is no other ayah in the qur'an that is clearer than this on this point. it also indicates that it is permissible to divorce a woman before consummating the marriage with her.
(believing women) this refers to what is usually the case, although there is no difference between a believing (muslim) woman and a woman of the people of the book in this regard, according to scholarly consensus. ibn `abbas, may allah be pleased with him, sa`id bin al-musayyib, al-hasan al-basri, `ali bin al-husayn zayn-ul-`abidin and a group of the salaf took this ayah as evidence that divorce cannot occur unless it has been preceded by marriage, because allah says,
(when you marry believing women, and then divorce them) the marriage contract here is followed by divorce, which indicates that the divorce cannot be valid if it comes first. ibn abi hatim recorded that ibn `abbas, may allah be pleased with him, said, "if someone were to say, `every woman i marry will ipso facto be divorced,' this does not mean anything, because allah says:
(when you marry believing women, and then divorce them.) do you not see that divorce comes after marriage'' a hadith to the same effect was recorded from `amr bin shu`ayb from his father from his grandfather, who said: "the messenger of allah said:
«لَا طَلَاقَ لِابْنِ آدَمَ فِيمَا لَا يَمْلِك»
(there is no divorce for the son of adam with regard to that which he does not possess.) this was recorded by ahmad, abu dawud, at-tirmidhi and ibn majah. at-tirmidhi said, "this is a hasan hadith, and it is the best thing that has been narrated on this matter.'' it was also recorded by ibn majah from `ali and al-miswar bin makhramah, may allah be pleased with them, that the messenger of allah said:
(no `iddah have you to count in respect of them.) this is a command on which the scholars are agreed, that if a woman is divorced before the marriage is consummated, she does not have to observe the `iddah (prescribed period for divorce) and she may go and get married immediately to whomever she wishes. the only exception in this regard is a woman whose husband died, in which case she has to observe an `iddah of four months and ten days even if the marriage was not consummated. this is also according to the consensus of the scholars.
فَمَتِّعُوهُنَّ وَسَرِّحُوهُنَّ سَرَاحاً جَمِيلاً
(so, give them a present, and set them free in a handsome manner.) the present here refers to something more general than half of the named dowery or a special gift that has not been named. allah says:
(there is no sin on you, if you divorce women while yet you have not touched them, nor fixed unto them their due (dowery). but bestow on them gift, the rich according to his means, and the poor according to his means, a gift of reasonable amount is a duty on the doers of good.) (2:236) pin sahih al-bukhari, it was recorded that sahl bin sa`d and abu usayd, may allah be pleased with them both, said, "the messenger of allah married umaymah bint sharahil, and when she entered upon him he reached out his hand towards her, and it was as if she did not like that, so he told abu usayd to give her two garments.'' `ali bin abi talhah reported that ibn `abbas, may allah be pleased with him, said "if the dowery had been named, she would not be entitled to more than half, but if the dowery is not been named, he should give her a gift according to his means, and this is the "handsome manner.''
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
this sentence is explicit that the word nikah here has been used for the contract of marriage only. the lexicographers have greatly disputed over the real meaning of the arabic word nikah. one section of them says that as a word it is common both for intercourse and for the contract of marriage. the second section says that in its meaning it is common for both. the third section opines that its real meaning is the contract of marriage and for intercourse it is used only figuratively. and the fourth section expresses the opinion that its real meaning is intercourse and for the contract of marriage it is used only figuratively. each section has cited arabic poetry in support of its view. but raghib isfahani has emphatically asserted this: "the real meaning of the word nikah is contract of marriage; it has been used for intercourse metaphorically. it is impossible that its real meaning be intercourse and may have been used for the contract of marriage only metaphorically." the argument he gives is that all the words that have been actually coined for intercourse in arabic, or in other languages of the world, arc obscene and vulgar. no gentleman would like to utter them in a civilized gathering. therefore, it is not possible that a society should use the word which has actually been coined for this act for marriage as a metaphor. for conveying this meaning only chaste words have been used in every language of the world and not obscene words.
as far as the qur'an and sunnah arc concerned, nikah is a term, which either implies only contract of marriage, or intercourse after the contract of marriage; but it has nowhere been used for intercourse outside marriage. this kind of intercourse has been called zina (adultery) by the qur'an and sunnah and not nikah.
this is a unique verse which was sent down probably in the same period respecting some case of divorce, and so inserted in this context. this shows that it was sent down after the preceding and before the following discourse. below is given a summary of the legal injunctions that have been derived from this verse:'
(1) although the word "believing women" has been used, which apparently may give the impression that the law enunciated in this verse is not applicable to the women of the people of the book, yet all scholars are agreed that this very injunction is applicable to them also. that is, in case a muslim has married such a woman, all the injunctions relating to her divorce, dower, waiting-period ('iddat) and provision at divorce are the same as of marriage with 'a believing woman. the scholars arc also agreed that allah's mentioning the believing women here in particular is actually meant to tell the muslims that only the believing women are suitable for them. that is, although it is permissible for them to marry jewish and christian women, it is not proper and commendable. in other words, the qur'an seems to impress that allah expects that the believers would marry only the believing women.
(2) the word mas (to touch) here has been used for intercourse by implication. thus, the verse apparently implies that if the husband has not had intercourse with the woman, even though he has had seclusion with her and has even touched her with the hand, she will riot have to observe the waiting-term ( iddat) in case of divorce. but the jurists, for the sake of precaution, have decreed that if they have had seclusion proper (i.e. seclusion during which intercourse could be possible), waiting-period will have to be observed if divorce is pronounced after it, and the waiting-period would be annulled only in case divorce was pronounced before they have had the seclusion.
(3) the annulment of the waiting-period in case of divorce before the event of seclusion means that in this case the man forfeits his right to take the woman back as his wife, and the woman becomes entitled to marry anyone she likes immediately after the divorce. but it should be borne in mind that this applies only to the divorce which is pronounced' before the event of the seclusion. if a woman's husband dies before having had seclusion, the waiting-period that has to be observed after death will not be annulled, but she will have to pass the same waiting-period of four months and ten days as is obligatory for a married woman in normal conditions. ( 'iddat is the waiting-period before the expiry of which a divorced woman or a widow is forbidden to remarry).
(4) the words "they do not have to fulfill a waiting-period for you", show that the waiting-period is a right of the man on the woman. but it does not mean that this is only the man's right. it, in fact, includes two other rights as well: the right of the children, and the right of allah or of the law. the man's right is on the ground that he has the right to take the woman back as his wife during the period, and also on the ground that the proof of the parentage of his children, which depends on the woman's being pregnant or otherwise, becomes established in the waiting-period. the reason for including the right of the children is that the proof of a child's parentage is necessary for the establishment of his legal rights and his moral status also depends on this that his parentage should not be doubtful. the reason for including the right of allah (or the right of the law) is that even if the people and their children become heedless of their rights, the divine law requires that their rights should be protected. that is why even if a man gives a warrant to a woman that after his death or after obtaining divorce from him, there will be no waiting-period binding on her from him, the divine law will in no case annul it.
(5) "provide them with something and send them away with kindness"; the intention of this injunction would be fulfilled by acting in either of the two ways: if the dower had been fixed at the time of marriage, and then divorce pronounced before the event of seclusion proper, payment of half of the dower will be obligatory, as enjoined in ai-baqarah: 237. to give more than what is obligatory is not binding but certainly commendable. for instance, it is commendable that besides paying half of the dower the man should let the woman retain the bridal garments, or any other articles that he had sent her for the occasion of marriage. but if no dower had been fixed at the time of marriage, it is obligatory to pay her something before sending her away, and this "something" should be according to the status and financial means of the man, as has been enjoined in al baqarah: 236. one section of the scholars hold that something in any case has to be paid in case of divorce as an obligation whether dower has been fixed or not.
(6) "sending off gracefully" does not only mean that the woman should be provided with something on divorce but this also that separation should be adopted in a gentlemanly way, without any kind of vilification. if a man does not happen to like a woman, or there has been some other cause of complaint due to which he does not want to keep the woman, he should divorce her like a gentleman and send her away. he should not start mentioning her faults and relating his complaints against her before the people so as to also prejudice them against her. this instruction of the qur'an clearly shows that annexing the enforcement of divorce to the permission of a local council or court is wholly against the wisdom and spirit of the divine law, for in that case there remains no chance of `sending her away gracefully", but defamation, revilement and vilification do inevitably result even if the man does not so will. moreover, the words of the verse also do not admit that the power of the man to divorce should be bound up with the permission of a local council or court. the verse is clearly giving the married man the power of divorce and placing on him alone the responsibility that if he wants to release the woman before touching her he must pay her half the dower as an obligation, or something else according to his means. from this the object of the verse clearly seems to be that in order to prevent divorce from being taken lightly the man should be placed under the burden of a financial responsibility so that he himself uses his power of divorce with sense, and there is no chance of an external interference in the internal affairs of the two families.
(7) ibn 'abbas, said bin al-musayyib, hasan basri, 'aii bin al-husain (zain al-'abidin), imam shafe'i and imam ahmad bin hanbal have deduced from the words, 'when you marry...and then divorce..." that divorce takes effect only when marriage has been contracted. divorce before the contract of marriage ' is without effect. therefore if a person says, "if i marry such and such a woman, or a woman of such and such a tribe or nation, or any other woman, she is divorced," it will be an absurd and meaningless thing; no divorce can take effect from this. the following ahadith are presented in support of this view:
"the son of adam is not entitled to use his power of divorce in respect of that which he does not possess." (ahmad, abu da'ud, tirmidhi, ibn majah). and: "there is no divorce before marriage." (ibn majah). but a great number of the jurists hold that this verse and these ahadith apply in the case when a man says to a woman, who is not his wife, "you have divorce on you," or "i divorce you." saying such a thing is no doubt absurd, and is of no legal consequence, but if he says, "if i marry you, you are divorced," this is not divorcing before the marriage, but the person is in fact declaring his intent that when the woman is married to him, she will stand divorced. such a declaration cannot be absurd and without effect, but, as a matter of fact, whenever the woman is married to him, divorce will fall on her. the jurists who hold the view have further differed as to rite extent this kind of divorce will have effect.
imam abu hanifah, imam muhammad and imam zufar hold that divorce will take place in any case whether a person specifics a woman or a tribe or a nation, or talks generally so as to say. 'any woman whom i marry is divorced." abu bakr al-jassas has cited the same opinion also from hadrat 'umar, 'abdullah bin mas'ud, ibrahim nakha'i, mujahid and 'umar bin 'abdul 'aziz (may allah show mercy to them all).
sufyan thauri and 'uthman al-batti say that divorce will take place only in case the person says, "if i marry such and such a woman, she is divorced."
hasan bin salih, laith bin sa'd and 'amir ash-sha'bi, say that such a divorce will take place even if something is said in general terms provided that a particular class of the people has been mentioned; for instance, if the person has said. "if i marry a woman of such and such a family, or such and such a tribe, or such and such city or country or nation, she is divorced."
ibn abi laila and imam malik, disputing the above opinion, have added a condition that the time limit also should be determined. for example, if the man said. " if i marry within this year or the next ten years such and such a woman or a woman from such and such a class, she is divorced," divorce will take place, otherwise not. imam malik also adds that if the time limit is so long that the man is not expected to outlive it, iris declaration will have no effect.