Abbas - Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
(Therefore, bear with what they say) bear, O Muhammad, all their insults and denial; this verses was however abrogated by the verses of fighting, (and celebrate the praises of thy Lord) pray, O Muhammad, by the command of your Lord (ere the rising of the sun) the morning prayer (and ere the going down thereof. And glorify Him) pray the Maghrib and 'Isha' prayers (some hours of the night) after the advent of the night (and at the two ends of the day) the prayers of Zuhr and 'Asr, (that thou mayst find acceptance) that you may be given the intercession and be pleased thereby.
So be patient with what they say — this is abrogated by the ‘fighting’ verse [cf. Q. 2:190] — and make glorifications, pray, by praising your Lord (bi-hamdi rabbika is a circumstantial qualifier, in other words, ‘ensconced in such [praise]’) before the rising of the sun, the morning prayer, and before its setting — the afternoon prayer — and in the watches of the night, [during] the hours thereof, and make glorifications, perform the sunset and the evening prayer, and at either side of the day (wa-atrāfa’l-nahāri, a supplement to the syntactical locus of the accusative clause wa-min ānā’i, ‘and in the watches’), in other words, perform the noon prayer, because the time for it begins at the point where the sun starts to go down, which is the [end] side of the first half [of the day] and the [start] side of the second half [of the day]; that perhaps you may be pleased, with the reward that you will be given.
Many Nations were destroyed and in Them is a Lesson
Allah, the Exalted, says,
(Is it not a guidance for them...) This is addressed to those who reject what the Prophet came to them with: `We destroyed those who denied the Messengers from the previous nations before them. They showed open hostility, so now there is not trace of them and none of them are left. This is witnessed by the empty homes that these people left behind, and which others have now inherited, moving about in the dwellings of those of the past.'
إِنَّ فِى ذلِكَ لأيَـتٍ لاٌّوْلِى النُّهَى
(Verily, in this are signs indeed for men of understanding.) This means those who have sound intellect and correct understanding. This is as Allah says,
(Have they not traveled through the land, and have they hearts wherewith to understand and ears wherewith to hear Verily, it is not the eyes that grow blind, but it is the hearts which are in the breasts that grow blind.) 22:46 Allah also said in Surah Alif Lam Mim As-Sajdah,
(And had it not been for a Word that went forth before from your Lord, and a term determined (their punishment), must necessarily have come (in this world).) 20:129 This means that if it were not for the Word that had already preceded from Allah -- that He would not punish anyone until the proof had been established against him and the punishment would take place at an appointed time that He has already determined for these rejecters -- then the punishment would certainly seize them immediately.
The Command to be patient and perform the Five daily Prayers
Allah comforts His Prophet by saying to him,
فَاصْبِرْ عَلَى مَا يَقُولُونَ
(So bear patiently what they say,) This means, "Be patient concerning their rejection of you.''
(And glorify the praises of your Lord before the rising of the sun,) This is speaking of the Morning (Fajr) prayer.
(and before its setting,) This is speaking of the Mid-afternoon (`Asr) prayer. This has been mentioned in the Two Sahihs on the authority of Jarir bin `Abdullah Al-Bajali, who said, "Once we were sitting with the Messenger of Allah when he looked up at the moon on a night when it was full. He said,
(Verily, you all will see your Lord (in the Hereafter) just as you see this moon and you will not have to crowd together to see Him. Therefore, if you are able to not miss a prayer before sunrise (Fajr) and before sunset (`Asr), then you should do so.) Then he recited this Ayah.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that `Umarah bin Ru'aybah that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,
(Anyone who prays before sunrise and before sunset will never enter the Hellfire.) This was also recorded by Muslim. Concerning Allah's statement,
وَمِنْ ءَانَآءِ الَّيْلِ فَسَبِّحْ
(and during some hours of the night, glorify the praises.) This means during its hours offer the late night (Tahajjud) prayer. Some of the scholars said it also means the after sunset (Maghrib) and the night (`Isha') prayers.
(and at the ends of the day,) This is the opposite of the hours of the night.
(that you may become pleased) As Allah says,
وَلَسَوْفَ يُعْطِيكَ رَبُّكَ فَتَرْضَى
(And verily, your Lord will give you (all good) so that you shall be well-pleased.) 93:5 In the Sahih, it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Allah, the Exalted, says, "O people of Paradise.'' They will reply, "We are here at Your service and Your pleasure our Lord.'' He will then say, "Are you all pleased'' They will reply, "Why should we not be pleased our Lord, when You have given us what You have not given any others of Your creation'' Allah will then say, "Verily, I am going to give you something better than that.'' They will say, "And what thing could be better than that'' Allah will say, "I have allowed for you My pleasure, so I will never be angry with you again after this.'') In another Hadith, it states that it will be said,
("O people of Paradise, verily you all have an appointed promise with Allah that He would like to fulfill for you.'' They will say, "And what is that Has He not already enlightened our faces, made our Scales (of good deeds) heavy, saved us from the Hellfire and entered us into Paradise'' Then, the veil will be lifted and they will gaze upon Him (Allah). By Allah, He has not given them anything better than the opportunity to look upon Him, and that is the increase (extra blessing).)
Maududi - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an
This is to comfort and console the Holy Prophet, as if to say, "Allah does not intend to destroy them yet, for He has appointed for them a term of respite, so you should endure with patience whatever they do against you and hear their harsh talk and go on performing the obligations of your Mission. For this purpose you should offer Salat in accordance with the prescribed times because it will create in you necessary forbearance and fortitude".
"Glorify your Lord" means: "Offer your prescribed Prayers", as is clear from v. 132:
Incidentally in this verse (130) the times of Salat have been prescribed: (1) Fajr Prayer before sunrise, (2) `Asr Prayer before sunset, (3) `Isha and Tahajjud Prayers during the hours of night. Morning and Afternoon (Dhuhr) and Evening (Maghrib) Prayers "at the extremes of the day." (See also E.N.'s. 91 to 97 of Chapter XVII.)
The original Arabic Text admits of two meanings:
(1) "Rest content with your present condition in which you have to hear many unpleasant things for the sake of your Mission, and submit to this decree that they are not being punished for the time being, for they will continue to persecute you and at the same time lead prosperous lives."
(2) "Go on performing your Mission, for as a result of this, you will be fully satisfied."
This second meaning is supported by (a) XVII: 79: "That time is not far, when your Lord may exalt you to a laudable position," which follows the commandment about Salat, (b) XCIII: 45: "Surely the later period of life will be better for you than the former, and in the near future your Lord will give you so much that you will be fully satisfied."
It means: "It does not behoove you and your companions to be envious of the riches of the wicked people who are amassing wealth by unlawful means. The best thing for you is the lawful provision which you earn by your hard labor, even though this may be meager in quantity. That is better for the pious and righteous and is of everlasting virtue."
That is, "Teach your children also that lawful provision is much better than the unlawful riches of the wicked people. For this purpose, enjoin them to say their prescribed Prayers, for this will change their attitude, their standard of values, and make them contented with pure provisions and virtuous life in preference to the life of sin and luxury."
It implies this: "We do not ask you to offer your Prayers for any benefit of Our own. We ask you to do that for your own good, because this will create piety in you which will bring about true success for you in this world and in the Hereafter."