14 - Ibrahim (Abraham)

6 Tafsir(s) related to verse 14.2

Al-Jalalayn

God (Allāhi, read in the genitive as a substitution or an explicative supplement, with what follows being an adjectival qualification; or [read as] Allāhu in the nominative as a subject, the predicate of which is [what follows]) to Whom belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth, as possessions, creatures and servants. And woe to the disbelievers from a terrible chastisement,

Ibn Al Kathir

Describing the Qur'an and warning Those Who defy it

Previously we discussed the meaning of the separate letters that appear in the beginnings of some Surahs.

كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَـهُ إِلَيْكَ

((This is) a Book which We have revealed unto you...) Allah says, `This is a Book that We have revealed to you, O Muhammad. This `Book', is the Glorious Qur'an, the most honored Book, that Allah sent down from heaven to the most honored Messenger of Allah sent to all the people of the earth, Arabs and non-Arabs alike,

لِتُخْرِجَ النَّاسَ مِنَ الظُّلُمَـتِ إِلَى النُّورِ

(in order that you might lead mankind out of darkness into light) We sent you, O Muhammad, with this Book in order that you might lead mankind away from misguidance and crookedness to guidance and the right way,'

اللَّهُ وَلِيُّ الَّذِينَ ءامَنُواْ يُخْرِجُهُم مِّنَ الظُّلُمَـتِ إِلَى النُّورِ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ أَوْلِيَآؤُهُمُ الطَّـغُوتُ يُخْرِجُونَهُم مِّنَ النُّورِ إِلَى الظُّلُمَـتِ

(Allah is the Wali (Protector or Guardian) of those who believe. He brings them out from darkness into light. But as for those who disbelieve, their Awliya (supporters and helpers) are Taghut (false deities), they bring them out from light into darkness.) 2:257, and,

هُوَ الَّذِى يُنَزِّلُ عَلَى عَبْدِهِ ءَايَـتٍ بَيِّنَـتٍ لِّيُخْرِجَكُمْ مِّنَ الظُّلُمَـتِ إِلَى النُّورِ

(It is He Who sends down manifest Ayat to His servant that He may bring you out from darkness into light. ) 57:9 Allah said next,

بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِمْ

(by their Lord's leave), He guides those whom He destined to be guided by the hand of His Messenger, whom He sent to guide them by His command,

إِلَى صِرَاطِ الْعَزِيزِ

(to the path of the All-Mighty,) Who can never be resisted or overpowered. Rather, Allah is Irresistible above everything and everyone else,

الْحَمِيدِ

(the Praised.) Who is glorified and praised in all His actions, statements, legislation, commandments and prohibitions and Who only says the truth in the information He conveys. Allah's statement,

اللَّهِ الَّذِى لَهُ مَا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَمَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ

(Allah to Whom belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth!), is similar to,

قُلْ يَأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا الَّذِى لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ

(Say: "O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah - to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth.) 7:158 Allah's statement,

وَوَيْلٌ لِّلْكَـفِرِينَ مِنْ عَذَابٍ شَدِيدٍ

(And woe unto the disbelievers from a severe torment. ) means, `woe to them on the Day of Judgment because they defied you, O Muhammad, and rejected you.' Allah described the disbelievers as preferring the life of the present world to the Hereafter, coveting the former life and working hard for its sake. They have forgotten the Hereafter and abandoned it behind their backs,

وَيَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ

(and hinder (men) from the path of Allah), from following the Messengers,

وَيَبْغُونَهَا عِوَجًا

(and seek crookedness therein) they seek to make Allah's path crooked, even though it is straight itself and does not deviate on account of those who defy or betray it. When the disbelievers do this, they become engulfed in ignorance and misguidance far away from truth, and therefore, there is no hope that they will gain guidance and correctness while on this state.

Kashani

And woe to the disbelievers, those who are veiled from the unity, or primordial nature, or the self-disclosure of the Essence and His unveiling. The levels of chastisement are dependent on [one of] these three aspects. Thus it is either the chastisement of the love of rivals [set up for God] in the Hell-fire of contrareity; the chastisement of configurations of vices and the fires of the attributes of the soul and the entailments of natures; or the chastisement of the veils of the acts and the attributes and privation from the light of the Essence;

Kashf Al-Asrar

God is He to whom belongs everything in the heavens and everything in the earth.

WāsiṬī said, “The realm of being all belongs to Him. When someone seeks the realm of being, He is the Being-Bestower. When someone seeks the Real, he will find that He has subjected the realm of being to him along with everything within it.” Whenever someone gives himself over to the Being-Bestower and his heart busies itself with His companionship, the engendered beings and the newly arrived things will busy themselves entirely with serving him.

He is saying, “My servant, the seven heavens, the seven earths, and all that is within them are My property and kingdom. All are My servants and servitors. If you bind your waist in loyalty to My covenant and, like serving-boys, bring your head into the collar of obedience, We will put the ring of serving you in the ear of all things and subject them to you. If you turn your head away from the circle of the command or busy your heart with others, We will set them all on their feet in antagonism toward you and We will make your standing place your prison.

One day Solomon the prophet, with his high level and rank, was sitting on the throne of the kingdom. The carpet of the realm was spread and the jinn, mankind, and birds were lined up in ranks. He placed the crown of messengerhood on the head of his prophethood, and it occurred to his mind that today no one surpassed David's son in rank and elevation. Immediately the wind was commanded to take away the mantle from his head. Solomon's face darkened and he said to the wind in his anger, “Return my mantle to me!”

The wind answered, “'Return to your heart!' O Solomon, bring your heart back to yourself so that I may bring your mantle back to you.”

Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an

This is the purpose for which the Holy Prophet had been sent. He was entrusted with the mission that he should bring mankind back from the ways of darkness (ways of wickedness) into the Way of God by the help of the Light of the Qur'an. For everyone, who is not on the Way of God, is, in fact, wandering about in the ways of the darkness (of ignorance), even though he might consider himself to be very enlightened and full of knowledge. On the other hand, the one who finds the Way of Allah, comes into the Light of Knowledge, even though he might be an illiterate person.

As regards "by the help of their Lord", this implies that the most a missionary of Islam (even though he be a Messenger of Allah) can do is to present the Right Way. It is not in his power to bring anyone forcibly to the Way, for this can only happen by the help and permission of Allah. That is why only that person whom Allah helps and permits gets guidance: otherwise even a perfect Missionary like a Messenger fails to bring a person to the Way. As regards the Divine Law, according to which Allah helps and permits a person to gain guidance, we learn from different passages of the Qur'an that Allah gives help only to that person who himself has a desire to get guidance: who frees himself from obduracy, obstinacy and prejudice: who is not a follower of his lust, nor a slave of his desires: who is inclined to see with open eyes) and hear with open cars and think with a clear mind, and is ready w accede to any reasonable thing.

The word (Hamid) is more comprehensive than (Mahmud). A person will be entitled to be Mahmud only when he is praised. But the Being Who is Hamid, is naturally and permanently worthy of praise, whether anyone praises Him or not, because the element of praise is inherent in Him and is inseparable from Him.

Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs

(Allah, unto Whom belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth) of creation and wondrous things. (And woe) this refers to the hottest, narrowest and deepest valley in hell. This valley would cry: “O Lord! My heat is intense, my width is very narrow and my depth is so deep, so let me take revenge on those who disobeyed you and make that nothing takes revenge against me”, (unto the disbelievers from an awful doom) a severe torment.