[In gratitude] for the security of Quraysh,
[In gratitude] for the security of Quraysh,
For the security of the Quraysh,He said:This means: for the safety sought by the Quraysh for their two journeys.
(For the taming of Quraysh…) [1-4]. This Surah was revealed about the Quraysh and the blessings that Allah, exalted is He, had bestowed upon them. The judge Abu Bakr al-Hiri informed us> Abu Ja‘far ‘Abd Allah ibn Isma‘il al-Hashimi> Sawadah ibn ‘Ali> Ahmad ibn Abu Bakr al-Zuhri> Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Thabit> ‘Uthman ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Atiq> Sa‘id ibn ‘Amr ibn Ja‘dah> his father> his grandmother Umm Hani’ bint Abi Talib who reported that the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: “Allah has favoured the Quraysh with seven characteristics which he has never given to anyone before them and will never give to anyone after them: The post of the Caliph (al-Khilafah) is given to one among them, the custody of the Sacred House (al-Hijabah) is assumed by someone from amongst them, giving water to the pilgrims (al-Siqayah) during Hajj is undertaken by someone amongst them, prophethood is given to someone amongst them, they were given victory over the [army of] elephants, they worshipped Allah for seven years during which none worshipped Him, and a Surah has been revealed about them in which none but them was mentioned (For the taming of Quraysh…)”.
This Surah has been separated from the one that preceded it in the primary Mushaf (the original copy
They (the Companions) wrote "In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful'' on the line (i.e., the space) between these two Surahs. They did this even though this Surah is directly related to the one which precedes it, as Muhammad bin Ishaq and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam have both clarified. This is because the meaning of both of them is, "We have prevented the Elephant from entering Makkah and We have destroyed its people in order to gather (Ilaf) the Quraysh, which means to unite them and bring them together safely in their city.'' It has also been said that the meaning of this (Ilaf) is what they would gather during their journey in the winter to Yemen and in the summer to Ash-Sham through trade and other than that. Then they would return to their city in safety during their journeys due to the respect that the people had for them because they were the residents of Allah's sanctuary. Therefore, whoever knew them would honor them. Even those who came to them and traveled with them, would be safe because of them. This was their situation during their journeys and travels during their winter and summer. In reference to their living in the city, then it is as Allah said,
أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ أَنَّا جَعَلْنَا حَرَماً ءامِناً وَيُتَخَطَّفُ النَّاسُ مِنْ حَوْلِهِمْ
(Have they not seen that We have made it a secure sanctuary, while men are being snatched away from all around them) (29:67) Thus, Allah says,
لإِيلَـفِ قُرَيْشٍ إِيلَـفِهِمْ
(For the Ilaf of the Quraysh. Their Ilaf) This is a subject that has been transferred from the first sentence in order to give it more explanation. Thus, Allah says,
إِيلَـفِهِمْ رِحْلَةَ الشِّتَآءِ وَالصَّيْفِ
(Their Ilaf caravans, in winter and in summer.) Ibn Jarir said, "The correct opinion is that the letter Lam is a prefix that shows amazement. It is as though He (Allah) is saying, `You should be amazed at the uniting (or taming) of the Quraysh and My favor upon them in that.''' He went on to say, "This is due to the consensus of the Muslims that they are two separate and independent Surahs.'' Then Allah directs them to be grateful for this magnificent favor in His saying,
فَلْيَعْبُدُواْ رَبَّ هَـذَا الْبَيْتِ
(So, let them worship the Lord of this House.) meaning, then let them single Him out for worship, just as He has given them a safe sanctuary and a Sacred House. This is as Allah says,
إِنَّمَآ أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ رَبِّ هَذِهِ الْبَلْدَةِ الَّذِى حَرَّمَهَا وَلَهُ كُلُّ شَىءٍ وَأُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ
(I have been commanded only to worship the Lord of this city, Who has sanctified it and to Whom belongs everything. And I am commanded to be from among the Muslims.) (27:91) Then Allah says,
الَّذِى أَطْعَمَهُم مِّن جُوعٍ
(Who has fed them against hunger,) meaning, He is the Lord of the House and He is the One Who feeds them against hunger.
وَءَامَنَهُم مِّنْ خوْفٍ
(And has made them safe from fear.) meaning, He favors them with safety and gentleness, so they should single Him out for worship alone, without any partner. They should not worship any idol, rival or statue besides Him. Therefore, whoever accepts this command, Allah will give him safety in both this life and the Hereafter. However, whoever disobeys Him, He will remove both of them from him. This is as Allah says,
وَضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلاً قَرْيَةً كَانَتْ ءَامِنَةً مُّطْمَئِنَّةً يَأْتِيهَا رِزْقُهَا رَغَدًا مِّن كُلِّ مَكَانٍ فَكَفَرَتْ بِأَنْعُمِ اللَّهِ فَأَذَاقَهَا اللَّهُ لِبَاسَ الْجُوعِ وَالْخَوْفِ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَصْنَعُونَ - وَلَقَدْ جَآءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْهُمْ فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَأَخَذَهُمُ الْعَذَابُ وَهُمْ ظَـلِمُونَ
(And Allah puts forward the example of a township, that dwelt secure and well-content: its provision coming to it in abundance from every place, but it denied the favors of Allah. So, Allah made it taste extreme of hunger and fear, because of that which they used to do. And verily, there had come unto them a Messenger from among themselves, but they denied him, so the torment overtook them while they were wrongdoers.) (16:112-113) This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Quraysh, and all praise and thanks are due to Allah.
The word ilaf, as used in the original is from alf which means to be habituated and accustomed to be reunited after breaking up, and to adopt something as a habit. About the lam that is prefixed to ilaf, some Arabists have expressed the opinion that it is to express surprise and wonder. Thus, Li-ilaf-i Quraish in means: "How surprising is the conduct of Quraish! It is only by virtue of Allah's bounty that they are reunited after their dispersion and have become accustomed to the trade journeys which have brought them their prosperity,. and yet from Allah's worship and service they are turning away." 'This is the opinion of Akhfash, Kisa'i and Farra', and holding this opinion something after this lam, the same thing itself is regarded as sufficient to show that the attitude and conduct a person has adopted in spite of it, is surprising and amazing". On the contrary, Khalil bin Ahmad, Sibawaih and Zamakhshari say that this is the lam of to `lil and it relates to the following sentence: Fa! ya `budu Rabba hadh a!-Bait, which means: "Allah's blessings on the Quraish are countless. But if for no other blessing, they should worship Allah at least for this blessing that by His bounty they became accustomed to the trade journeys, for this by itself is indeed a great favor of Allah to them. "
That is, the trade journeys. In summer the Quraish traveled northward to Syria and Palestine, for they are cool lands, and in winter southward to Yemen, etc. for they are warm.
"This House": the Holy Ka'bah. The sentence means that the Quraish have attained to this blessing only by virtue of the House of Allah. They themselves acknowledge that the 360 idols, which they worship, are not its lord, but Allah alone is its Lord. He alone saved them from the invasion of the army of elephants. Him alone they had invoked for help against Abrahah's army. 'It was His House the keeping of which enhanced their rank and position in Arabia, for before that they were dispersed and commanded no position whatever. Like the common Arab tribes they too were scattered factions of a race. But when they rallied round this House in Makkah and began to serve it, they became, honorable throughout Arabia, and their trade caravans began to visit every part of the country fearlessly. Therefore, whatever they have achieved, it has been possible only by the help of the Lord of this House; therefore, they should worship Him alone.
The allusion implies that before the Quraish came to Makkah, they were a scattered people in Arabia and living miserable lives. After their gathering together in Makkah they began to prosper, and the Prophet Abraham's prayer for them was literally fulfilled when he had prayed: "Lord, I have settled some of my descendants in a barren valley near Thy sacred House. Lord, I have done this in the hope that they will establish salat there. So turn the hearts of the people towards them, and provide fruits for their food." (Ibrahim: 37)
"Secure against fear" : secure from the fear from which no one anywhere in Arabia was, safe. There was no settlement anywhere in the country the people of which could sleep peacefully at night, for they feared an attack any time from any quarter by some unknown enemy. No one could step out of the bounds of his tribe for fear of life or of being taken prisoner and made a slave. No caravan could travel safely from fear of attack, or without bribing influential chiefs of the tribes' on the way for safe conduct, But the Quraish were immune from every danger; they had no fear of an attack from an enemy. Their caravans, small or big, freely passed on the trade routes everywhere in the country. As soon as it become known about a certain caravan that it belonged to the keepers of the Ka`bah, no one could dare touch it with an evil intention, so much so that even if a single Quraishite was passing on the way, he was allowed to pass unharmed and untouched as soon as the word haram " or "ana min haramillah " was heard from him.
And from his narration on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that he said about the interpretation of Allah's saying (For the taming of Quraysh): '(For the taming of Quraysh) he says: command Quraysh to be tamed to Allah's divine Oneness; and it is also said this means: mention My blessings to Quraysh so that they be tamed to Allah's divine Oneness.