93 - Ad Duhaa (The brightness of day)

6 Tafsir(s) related to verse 93.1

Al-Jalalayn

By the forenoon, that is to say, the first part of the day or all of it,

Al-Tustari

By the forenoon,He said:In its inner meaning it is the spiritual self (nafs al-rūḥ).

Asbab Al-Nuzul by Al-Wahidi

(By the morning hours, and by the night when it is stillest, thy Lord hath not forsaken thee nor doth He hate thee) [93:1-3]. Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi informed us> Abu"l-Husayn Ahmad ibn al-Sarraj> al-Husayn ibn al-Muthanna ibn Mu"adh> Abu Hudhayfah> Sufyan al-Thawri> al-Aswad ibn Qays> Jundub who said: "A woman from the Quraysh said to the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace: "I think your demon has forsaken you", and so it was revealed (By the morning hours, and by the night when it is stillest, thy Lord hath not forsaken thee nor doth He hate thee)". This was narrated by Bukhari> Ahmad ibn Yunus> Zuhayr> al-Aswad and by Muslim> Muhammad ibn Rafi"> Yahya ibn Adam> Zuhayr. Abu Hamid Ahmad ibn al-Hasan al-Katib informed us> Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Shadhan> "Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Hatim> Abu Sa"id al-Ashajj> Abu Mu"awiyah> Hisham ibn "Urwah> his father who related: "Gabriel, peace be upon him, was late in coming to the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, and this caused him tremendous distress. Khadijah said to him: "Your Lord has forsaken you because of the distress He sees in you!" And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed (By the morning hours, and by the night when it is stillest, thy Lord hath not forsaken thee nor doth He hate thee)". Abu "Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Hamid informed us> Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn "Abd Allah ibn Zakariyya> Muhammad ibn "Abd al-Rahman al-Daghuli> "Abd al-Rahman Muhammad ibn Yunus> Abu Nu"aym> Hafs ibn Sa"id al-Qurashi who related that his mother has related from Khawlah, a servant of the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, that a dog entered the Prophet"s house, went under the bed and later died there. Days passed by and the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, did not receive any revelation. He said: "O Khawlah, what has happened in my house? Gabriel, peace be upon him, has stopped coming to me". Khawlah said: "I will tidy the house and sweep the floor". When she tried to sweep under the bed, she felt something heavy. She got it out and found it was a dog. She took the dog out and threw it behind a wall. The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, then came in with his jawbones trembling " whenever revelation came to him he shivered " and said: "O Khawlah, cover me!" Allah, exalted is He, revealed to him (By the morning hours, and by the night when it is stillest, thy Lord hath not forsaken thee nor doth He hate thee).

Ibn Al Kathir

The Reason for the Revelation of Surat Ad-Duha

Imam Ahmad recorded from Jundub that he said, "The Prophet became ill, so he did not stand for prayer for a night or two. Then a woman came and said, `O Muhammad! I think that your devil has finally left you.' So Allah revealed,

وَالضُّحَى - وَالَّيْلِ إِذَا سَجَى - مَا وَدَّعَكَ رَبُّكَ وَمَا قَلَى

(By the forenoon. By the night when it darkens. Your Lord has neither forsaken you nor hates you.)'' Al-Bukhari, Muslim, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i, Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir, all recorded this Hadith. This Jundub (who narrated it) is Ibn `Abdullah Al-Bajali Al-`Alaqi. In a narration from Al-Aswad bin Qays, he said that he heard Jundub say that Jibril was slow in coming to the Messenger of Allah. So the idolators said, "Muhammad's Lord has abandoned him.'' So Allah revealed,

وَالضُّحَى - وَالَّيْلِ إِذَا سَجَى - مَا وَدَّعَكَ رَبُّكَ وَمَا قَلَى

(By the forenoon. By the night when it darkens. Your Lord has neither forsaken you nor hates you.)

وَالضُّحَى - وَالَّيْلِ إِذَا سَجَى

(By the forenoon. By the night when it darkens.) Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas, "When the Qur'an was revealed to the Messenger of Allah, Jibril was delayed from coming to him for a number of days (on one occasion). Therefore, the Messenger of Allah was affected by this. Then the idolators began to say, `His Lord has abandoned him and hates him.' So Allah revealed,

مَا وَدَّعَكَ رَبُّكَ وَمَا قَلَى

(Your Lord has neither forsaken you nor hates you.)'' In this, Allah is swearing by the forenoon and the light that He has placed in it.

وَالَّيْلِ إِذَا سَجَى

(By the night when it darkens (Saja).) meaning, it settles, darkens meaning, it settles, darkens and overcomes them. This was said by Mujahid, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Ibn Zayd and others. This is a clear proof of the power of the Creator of this (light) and that (darkness). This is as Allah says,

وَالَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَى - وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا تَجَلَّى

(By the night as it envelops. By the Day as it appears.) (92:1-2) Allah also says,

فَالِقُ الإِصْبَاحِ وَجَعَلَ الَّيْلَ سَكَناً وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ حُسْبَاناً ذَلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ

((He is the) Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for resting, and the sun and the moon for reckoning. Such is the measuring of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.) (6:96) Allah then says,

مَا وَدَّعَكَ رَبُّكَ

(Your Lord has neither forsaken you) meaning, `He has not abandoned you.'

وَمَا قَلَى

(nor hates (Qala) you.) meaning, `He does not hate you.'

The Hereafter is Better Than This First Life

وَلَلاٌّخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لَّكَ مِنَ الاٍّولَى

(And indeed the Hereafter is better for you than the present.) meaning, the abode of the Hereafter is better for you than this current abode. For this reason the Messenger of Allah used to be the most abstinent of the people concerning the worldly things, and he was the greatest of them in his disregard for worldly matters. This is well known by necessity from his biography. When the Prophet was given the choice at the end of his life between remaining in this life forever and then going to Paradise, or moving on to the company of Allah, he chose that which is with Allah over this lowly world. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, "The Messenger of Allah was lying down on a straw mat and it left marks on his side. Then when he woke up he began to rub his side. So I said, `O Messenger of Allah! Will you allow us to spread something soft over this straw mat' He replied,

«مَالِي وَلِلدُّنْيَا، إِنَّمَا مَثَلِي وَمَثَلُ الدُّنْيَا كَرَاكِبٍ ظَلَّ تَحْتَ شَجَرَةٍ ثُمَّ رَاحَ وَتَرَكَهَا»

(I have nothing to do with this world. The parable of me and this world is like a rider who rests in the shade of a tree, then he passes on and leaves it.)'' At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah both recorded this Hadith by way of Al-Mas`udi. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.''

The Numerous Bounties of the Hereafter are waiting for the Messenger of Allah

Then Allah says,

وَلَسَوْفَ يُعْطِيكَ رَبُّكَ فَتَرْضَى

(And verily, your Lord will give you so that you shall be well-pleased.) meaning, in the final abode Allah will give him until He pleases him concerning his followers, and in that which He has prepared for him from His generosity. From this will be the River of Al-Kawthar, which will have domes of hollowed pearls on its banks, and the mud on its banks will be the strongest frangrance of musk, as will be mentioned. Imam Abu `Amr Al-Awza`i recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "The Messenger of Allah was shown that which his Ummah would be blessed with after him, treasure upon treasure. So he was pleased with that. Then Allah revealed,

وَلَسَوْفَ يُعْطِيكَ رَبُّكَ فَتَرْضَى

(And verily, your Lord will give you so that you shall be well-pleased.) So, Allah will give him in Paradise one million palaces, and each palace will contain whatever he wishes of wives and servants.'' This was recorded by Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim from his route of transmission. This chain of narration is authentic to Ibn `Abbas, and statements like this can only be said from that which is Tawqif.

The Numerous Bounties of the Hereafter are waiting for the Messenger of Allah

Then Allah says,

وَلَسَوْفَ يُعْطِيكَ رَبُّكَ فَتَرْضَى

(And verily, your Lord will give you so that you shall be well-pleased.) meaning, in the final abode Allah will give him until He pleases him concerning his followers, and in that which He has prepared for him from His generosity. From this will be the River of Al-Kawthar, which will have domes of hollowed pearls on its banks, and the mud on its banks will be the strongest frangrance of musk, as will be mentioned. Imam Abu `Amr Al-Awza`i recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "The Messenger of Allah was shown that which his Ummah would be blessed with after him, treasure upon treasure. So he was pleased with that. Then Allah revealed,

وَلَسَوْفَ يُعْطِيكَ رَبُّكَ فَتَرْضَى

(And verily, your Lord will give you so that you shall be well-pleased.) So, Allah will give him in Paradise one million palaces, and each palace will contain whatever he wishes of wives and servants.'' This was recorded by Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim from his route of transmission. This chain of narration is authentic to Ibn `Abbas, and statements like this can only be said from that which is Tawqif.

A Mention of some of Allah's Favors upon the Messenger Enumerating His favors upon His Messenger

Allah says;

أَلَمْ يَجِدْكَ يَتِيماً فَآوَى

(Did He not find you an orphan and gave you a refuge) This refers to the fact that his father died while his mother was still pregnant with him, and his mother, Aminah bint Wahb died when he was only six years old. After this he was under the guardianship of his grandfather, `Abdul-Muttalib, until he died when Muhammad was eight years old. Then his uncle, Abu Talib took responsibility for him and continued to protect him, assist him, elavate his status, honor him, and even restrain his people from harming him when he was forty years of age and Allah commissioned him with the prophethood. Even with this, Abu Talib continued to follow the religion of his people, worshipping idols. All of this took place by the divine decree of Allah and His decree is most excellent. Until Abu Talib died a short time before the Hijrah. After this (Abu Talib's death) the foolish and ignorant people of the Quraysh began to attack him, so Allah chose for him to migrate away from them to the city of Al-Aws and Al-Khazraj among those who helped him (in Al-Madinah). Allah caused his Sunnah to be spread in the most perfect and complete manner. Then, when he arrived at their city, they gave him shelter, supported him, defended him and fought before him (against the enemies of Islam) -- may Allah be pleased with all of them. All of this was from Allah's protection for him, guarding over him and caring for him. Then Allah says,

وَوَجَدَكَ ضَآلاًّ فَهَدَى

(He found you unaware and guided you) This is similar to Allah's saying,

وَكَذَلِكَ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَيْكَ رُوحاً مِّنْ أَمْرِنَا مَا كُنتَ تَدْرِى مَا الْكِتَـبُ وَلاَ الإِيمَـنُ وَلَـكِن جَعَلْنَـهُ نُوراً نَّهْدِى بِهِ مَن نَّشَآءُ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا

(And thus We have sent to you a Ruh from Our command. you knew not what is the Book, nor what is Faith. But We have made it a light wherewith We guide whosoever of our servants We will...) (42:52) Allah says,

وَوَجَدَكَ عَآئِلاً فَأَغْنَى

(And He found you poor and made you rich) meaning, `you were poor having dependents, so Allah made you wealthy and independent of all others besides Him.' Thus, Allah combined for him the two positions: the one who is poor and patient, and the one who is wealthy and thankful. In the Two Sahihs it has been recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said,

«لَيْسَ الْغِنَى عَنْ كَثْرَةِ الْعَرَضِ، وَلَكِنَّ الْغِنَى غِنَى النَّفْس»

(Wealth is not determined by abundance of possessions, but wealth is the richness of the soul.) In Sahih Muslim, it is recorded from `Abdullah bin `Amr that the Messenger of Allah said,

«قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَرُزِقَ كَفَافًا وَقَنَّعَهُ اللهُ بِمَا آتَاه»

(Whoever accepts Islam, is provided with his basic needs, and Allah makes him content with what He has given him, then he will be successful.)

How should this Bounty be responded to

Then Allah says,

فَأَمَّا الْيَتِيمَ فَلاَ تَقْهَرْ

(Therefore, treat not the orphan with oppression.) meaning, `just as you were an orphan and Allah sheltered you, then do not oppress the orphan.' In other words, `do not humiliate him, scorn him or despise him. Rather, you should be kind and gentle to him.' Qatadah said, "Be like a merciful father to the orphan.''

وَأَمَّا السَّآئِلَ فَلاَ تَنْهَرْ

(And repulse not the one who asks.) meaning, `just as you were astray and Allah guided you, then do not scorn the one who asks for knowledge seeking to be guided.' Ibn Ishaq said,

وَأَمَّا السَّآئِلَ فَلاَ تَنْهَرْ

(And repulse not the one who asks.) "This means do not be oppressive, arrogant, wicked, or mean to the weak among Allah's servants.'' Qatadah said, "This means respond to the poor with mercy and gentleness.''

وَأَمَّا بِنِعْمَةِ رَبِّكَ فَحَدِّثْ

(And procalim the grace of your Lord.) meaning, `just as you were poor and needy, and Allah made you wealthy, then tell about Allah's favor upon you.' Abu Dawud recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said,

«لَا يَشْكُرُ اللهَ مَنْ لَا يَشْكُرُ النَّاس»

(Whoever is not thankful to the people, then he is not thankful to Allah.) At-Tirmidhi also recorded this Hadith and he said, "Sahih''. Abu Dawud recorded from Jabir that the Prophet said,

«مَنْ أُبْلِيَ بَلَاءً فَذَكَرَهُ فَقَدْ شَكَرَهُ، وَمَنْ كَتَمَهُ فَقَدْ كَفَرَه»

(Whoever overcomes some test (i.e., calamity) and mentions it (to others), then he is indeed thankful. And whoever conceals it, then indeed he was ungrateful.) Abu Dawud was alone in recording this Hadith. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Ad-Duha, and unto Allah is due all praise and thanks.

Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an

Here, the word duha has been used in contrast to the night; therefore, it implies the bright hours of the day. A precedent of it are vv. 97-98 of Surah Al-A'raf, which say: Do the people of the settlements now feel secure that Our punishment will not come to them all of a sudden at night, while they might be fast asleep? Or, do they feel secure that Our punishment will not smite them all of a sudden during the day while they might be engaged in pastimes?" In these verses also since the word duha has been used in contrast to the night, it implies the day and not just forenoon.

The word raja in the original does not only signify the spreading of darkness but it also contains the meaning of stillness and peace that prevails at night. This quality of night deeply relates to the theme that follows.

Traditions show that Revelations to the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) had remained suspended. for some period of time. Different traditions have mentioned different durations of this period. Ibn Juraij has mentioned it to be 12 days, Kalbi 15 days, Ibn 'Abbas 25 days, and Suddi and Muqatil have stated that it extended to 40 days. In any case the period was so long that it made the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) sorrowful, and the opponents also had the opportunity to taunt him. For whenever a new Surah came down, the Holy Prophet would recite it before the people. Therefore, when he did not recite any new Revelation to them for quite some days, the opponents thought that the fountainhead from where the revelation came, had dried up. Jundub bin 'Abdullah al-Bajali has related that when Gabriel (peace he on him) stopped coming, the pagans started saying that Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings) had been forsaken by his Lord. (Ibn Jarir, Tabarani, 'Abd bin Humaid, Sa'id bin Mansur, Ibn Marduyah). Other traditions show that Umm Jamil, wife of Abu Lahab, who was an aunt of the Holy Prophet and whose house adjoined his, said to him: "It appears your satan has forsaken you." `Aufi and Ibn Jarir have related, on the authority of Ibn `Abbas, that when Gabriel did not visit him for several days, the Holy Prophet became anxious and distressed, and the pagans began to say that his Lord had become angry with him and had forsaken him. In the mursal traditions of Qatadah and Dahhak almost the same theme has been expressed. The Holy Prophet's extreme grief and anguish in this condition has also been referred to in several traditions. And this was natural. The apparent indifference on the part of the beloved, the apparent deprivation of the contact with the source of power, which was his chief support, in the soul-destroying conflict between belief and unbelief, and above all, the taunts and jeers of the enemy, when all these things combined they must have caused great anguish to the Holy Prophet, and he must be thinking that because of some error that he might have committed his Lord had become displeased with him and had forsaken and left him to fight the battle between truth and falsehood alone.

This was the state when this Surah was sent down to console the Holy Prophet. In it, swearing an oath by the light of the day and the peacefulness of the night, he has been told: "Your Lord has neither forsaken you, nor is He displeased with you." The relevance of the oath by these two things to the theme is: "Just as brightening up of the day and spreading of the night with darkness and stillness is not for the reason that Allah is pleased with the people during the day and displeased with them during the night but both states are based on supreme wisdom and expedience, so sending down of revelation to you at one-time and suspending it at another time, also is based on wisdom and expedience; it has nothing to do with Allah's being pleased with you when He sends down revelation and his being displeased with you when He suspends it. Besides, another relevance of the oath to the subject is that if man is constantly exposed to the light of days it wearies him; so, it is necessary that night should fall after the day has remained bright for a certain period so that man may have rest and peace in it. Likewise, if you are constantly exposed to the light of revelation, your nerves would not stand it. Therefore, fatrah (break or gap in the revelation) also has been provided by Allah on account of expedience so that the effects of the strain of revelation that you have to bear pass away and complete peace is restored to you. In other words, rising of the sun of -revelation is analogous to the bright day and the period of the fatrah to the stillness and peace of the night. "

Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs

And from his narration on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that he said about the interpretation of Allah's saying (By the morning hours): '(By the morning hours) He says: Allah swears by the whole day