93 - Ad Duhaa (The brightness of day)

5 Tafsir(s) related to verse 93.1

Al-Jalalayn

By the forenoon, that is to say, the first part of the day or all of it,

Al-Tustari

By the forenoon,He said:In its inner meaning it is the spiritual self (nafs al-rūḥ).

Asbab Al-Nuzul by Al-Wahidi

(By the morning hours, and by the night when it is stillest, thy Lord hath not forsaken thee nor doth He hate thee) [93:1-3]. Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi informed us> Abu"l-Husayn Ahmad ibn al-Sarraj> al-Husayn ibn al-Muthanna ibn Mu"adh> Abu Hudhayfah> Sufyan al-Thawri> al-Aswad ibn Qays> Jundub who said: "A woman from the Quraysh said to the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace: "I think your demon has forsaken you", and so it was revealed (By the morning hours, and by the night when it is stillest, thy Lord hath not forsaken thee nor doth He hate thee)". This was narrated by Bukhari> Ahmad ibn Yunus> Zuhayr> al-Aswad and by Muslim> Muhammad ibn Rafi"> Yahya ibn Adam> Zuhayr. Abu Hamid Ahmad ibn al-Hasan al-Katib informed us> Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Shadhan> "Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Hatim> Abu Sa"id al-Ashajj> Abu Mu"awiyah> Hisham ibn "Urwah> his father who related: "Gabriel, peace be upon him, was late in coming to the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, and this caused him tremendous distress. Khadijah said to him: "Your Lord has forsaken you because of the distress He sees in you!" And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed (By the morning hours, and by the night when it is stillest, thy Lord hath not forsaken thee nor doth He hate thee)". Abu "Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Hamid informed us> Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn "Abd Allah ibn Zakariyya> Muhammad ibn "Abd al-Rahman al-Daghuli> "Abd al-Rahman Muhammad ibn Yunus> Abu Nu"aym> Hafs ibn Sa"id al-Qurashi who related that his mother has related from Khawlah, a servant of the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, that a dog entered the Prophet"s house, went under the bed and later died there. Days passed by and the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, did not receive any revelation. He said: "O Khawlah, what has happened in my house? Gabriel, peace be upon him, has stopped coming to me". Khawlah said: "I will tidy the house and sweep the floor". When she tried to sweep under the bed, she felt something heavy. She got it out and found it was a dog. She took the dog out and threw it behind a wall. The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, then came in with his jawbones trembling " whenever revelation came to him he shivered " and said: "O Khawlah, cover me!" Allah, exalted is He, revealed to him (By the morning hours, and by the night when it is stillest, thy Lord hath not forsaken thee nor doth He hate thee).

Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an

Here, the word duha has been used in contrast to the night; therefore, it implies the bright hours of the day. A precedent of it are vv. 97-98 of Surah Al-A'raf, which say: Do the people of the settlements now feel secure that Our punishment will not come to them all of a sudden at night, while they might be fast asleep? Or, do they feel secure that Our punishment will not smite them all of a sudden during the day while they might be engaged in pastimes?" In these verses also since the word duha has been used in contrast to the night, it implies the day and not just forenoon.

The word raja in the original does not only signify the spreading of darkness but it also contains the meaning of stillness and peace that prevails at night. This quality of night deeply relates to the theme that follows.

Traditions show that Revelations to the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) had remained suspended. for some period of time. Different traditions have mentioned different durations of this period. Ibn Juraij has mentioned it to be 12 days, Kalbi 15 days, Ibn 'Abbas 25 days, and Suddi and Muqatil have stated that it extended to 40 days. In any case the period was so long that it made the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) sorrowful, and the opponents also had the opportunity to taunt him. For whenever a new Surah came down, the Holy Prophet would recite it before the people. Therefore, when he did not recite any new Revelation to them for quite some days, the opponents thought that the fountainhead from where the revelation came, had dried up. Jundub bin 'Abdullah al-Bajali has related that when Gabriel (peace he on him) stopped coming, the pagans started saying that Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings) had been forsaken by his Lord. (Ibn Jarir, Tabarani, 'Abd bin Humaid, Sa'id bin Mansur, Ibn Marduyah). Other traditions show that Umm Jamil, wife of Abu Lahab, who was an aunt of the Holy Prophet and whose house adjoined his, said to him: "It appears your satan has forsaken you." `Aufi and Ibn Jarir have related, on the authority of Ibn `Abbas, that when Gabriel did not visit him for several days, the Holy Prophet became anxious and distressed, and the pagans began to say that his Lord had become angry with him and had forsaken him. In the mursal traditions of Qatadah and Dahhak almost the same theme has been expressed. The Holy Prophet's extreme grief and anguish in this condition has also been referred to in several traditions. And this was natural. The apparent indifference on the part of the beloved, the apparent deprivation of the contact with the source of power, which was his chief support, in the soul-destroying conflict between belief and unbelief, and above all, the taunts and jeers of the enemy, when all these things combined they must have caused great anguish to the Holy Prophet, and he must be thinking that because of some error that he might have committed his Lord had become displeased with him and had forsaken and left him to fight the battle between truth and falsehood alone.

This was the state when this Surah was sent down to console the Holy Prophet. In it, swearing an oath by the light of the day and the peacefulness of the night, he has been told: "Your Lord has neither forsaken you, nor is He displeased with you." The relevance of the oath by these two things to the theme is: "Just as brightening up of the day and spreading of the night with darkness and stillness is not for the reason that Allah is pleased with the people during the day and displeased with them during the night but both states are based on supreme wisdom and expedience, so sending down of revelation to you at one-time and suspending it at another time, also is based on wisdom and expedience; it has nothing to do with Allah's being pleased with you when He sends down revelation and his being displeased with you when He suspends it. Besides, another relevance of the oath to the subject is that if man is constantly exposed to the light of days it wearies him; so, it is necessary that night should fall after the day has remained bright for a certain period so that man may have rest and peace in it. Likewise, if you are constantly exposed to the light of revelation, your nerves would not stand it. Therefore, fatrah (break or gap in the revelation) also has been provided by Allah on account of expedience so that the effects of the strain of revelation that you have to bear pass away and complete peace is restored to you. In other words, rising of the sun of -revelation is analogous to the bright day and the period of the fatrah to the stillness and peace of the night. "

Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs

And from his narration on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that he said about the interpretation of Allah's saying (By the morning hours): '(By the morning hours) He says: Allah swears by the whole day