56 - Al Waqia (The event)

4 Tafsir(s) related to verse 56.1

Al-Jalalayn

When the [imminent] Event comes to pass, [when] the Resurrection takes place,

Ibn Al Kathir

The Horrors of the Day of Resurrection

Al-Waqi`ah (the occurrence), is one of the names of the Day of Resurrection, because that Day is real and will surely come. Allah the Exalted said in other Ayat,

فَيَوْمَئِذٍ وَقَعَتِ الْوَاقِعَةُ

(Then on that Day shall the Waqi`ah occur.)( 69:15) Allah the Exalted said,

لَيْسَ لِوَقْعَتِهَا كَاذِبَةٌ

(There is not, for its occurrence, Kadhibah.) means, when He commands the Day of Resurrection to begin, none can stop it from happening or prevent it from beginning,

اسْتَجِيبُواْ لِرَبِّكُمْ مِّن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِىَ يَوْمٌ لاَّ مَرَدَّ لَهُ مِنَ اللَّهِ

(Answer the call of your Lord before there comes from Allah a Day which can not be averted.) (42:47),

سَأَلَ سَآئِلٌ بِعَذَابٍ وَاقِعٍ - لِّلْكَـفِرِينَ لَيْسَ لَهُ دَافِعٌ

(A questioner asked concerning a torment about to occur -- upon the disbelievers, which none can avert.)(70:1-2),

وَيَوْمَ يَقُولُ كُن فَيَكُونُ قَوْلُهُ الْحَقُّ وَلَهُ الْمُلْكُ يَوْمَ يُنفَخُ فِى الصُّوَرِ عَـلِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَـدَةِ وَهُوَ الْحَكِيمُ الْخَبِيرُ

(And on the Day He will say: "Be!'' -- and it is! His Word is the Truth. His will be the dominion on the Day when the Trumpet will be blown. All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. He is the All-Wise, Well Aware.)(6:73) As for the meaning of

كَاذِبَةٌ

(Kadhibah) Muhammad bin Ka`b said: "It will certainly occur,'' while Qatadah said, "It shall not be discontinued, taken back or aborted. Allah's statement,

خَافِضَةٌ رَّافِعَةٌ

(Bringing low, exalting.) indicates that Al-Waqi`ah lowers some people to the lowest parts of the Fire, even if they had been mighty in this life. It also elevates others to the highest grades in the residence of eternal delight, even if they were weak in this life. This was said by Al-Hasan, Qatadah and others. Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas:

خَافِضَةٌ رَّافِعَةٌ

(Bringing low, exalting), "It made the near and the far hear it,'' while `Ikrimah said, "It lowered, and thus those who were close heard it, and elevated, and thus those in the distance heard it.'' Ad-Dahhak and Qatadah said similarly. Allah said,

إِذَا رُجَّتِ الاٌّرْضُ رَجّاً

(When the earth will be shaken with a terrible shake.) meaning, it is shaken and moved violently over all of its surface and through its depths. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah and others said about Allah's saying:,

إِذَا رُجَّتِ الاٌّرْضُ رَجّاً

(When the earth will be shaken with a terrible shake.) it means "Violently shaken.'' Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said, "The earth will be shaken with all that is in it, just as a sifter is shaken with its contents.'' This is like Allah's saying:

إِذَا زُلْزِلَتِ الاٌّرْضُ زِلْزَالَهَا

(When the earth is shaken with its earthquake.)(99:1) and,

يأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُواْ رَبَّكُمْ إِنَّ زَلْزَلَةَ السَّاعَةِ شَىْءٌ عَظِيمٌ

(O mankind! Have Taqwa of your Lord! Verily, the earthquake of the Hour is a terrible thing.)(22:1). Allah said:

وَبُسَّتِ الْجِبَالُ بَسّاً

(And the mountains will be powdered to dust,) meaning, relentlessly pulverized. This was said by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah and Qatadah and others. Ibn Zayd said: "The mountains will become just like Allah described them,

كَثِيباً مَّهِيلاً

(A heap of sand poured out.)(73:14).'' Allah's saying:

فَكَانَتْ هَبَآءً مُّنبَثّاً

(So that they will become floating dust particles.) Abu Ishaq narrated from Al-Harith, from `Ali: "It will become like the rising dust storm that soon fades away leaving no trace of itself behind.'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas about Allah's saying:

فَكَانَتْ هَبَآءً مُّنبَثّاً

(So that they will become floating dust particles.) "It describes the rising embers from the fire when it is kindled, but when the embers land, they are extinguished quickly.'' `Ikrimah said, "The floating dust particles that the wind scatters all around,'' while Qatadah said,

هَبَآءً مُّنبَثّاً

(floating particles), "Like the dry parts of trees that the wind scatters all about.'' This Ayah is similar to several other Ayat that indicate that the mountains will be moved from their places, demolished and blown off their bases, becoming like carded wool on the Day of Resurrection.

Three Categories of People on the Day of Resurrection

Allah's statement,

وَكُنتُمْ أَزْوَاجاً ثَلَـثَةً

(And you (all) will be in three groups.) This means that people will be divided into three categories on the Day of Resurrection. Some will on the right of Allah's Throne, and they are those who were brought forth from `Adam's right side. This category will be given their Books of Records in their right hand and will be taken to the right side. As-Suddi explained that they will comprise the majority of the residents of Paradise. Another category is those who will be placed to the left of Allah's Throne, and they are those who were brought forth from `Adam's left side. This category will be given their Books of Records in their left hands and will be taken to the left side. They are the residents of the Fire, may Allah save us from their actions. A third category is comprised of those who are the foremost and nearest before Allah. They are in a better grade and status and nearer to Allah than those on the right side. They are the chiefs of those on the right side, because they include the Messengers, Prophets, true believers and martyrs. They are fewer than those on the right side; so Allah said,

فَأَصْحَـبُ الْمَيْمَنَةِ مَآ أَصْحَـبُ الْمَيْمَنَةِ - وَأَصْحَـبُ الْمَشْـَمَةِ مَآ أَصْحَـبُ الْمَشْـَمَةِ - وَالسَّـبِقُونَ السَّـبِقُونَ

(So those on the right -- how will be those on the right! And those on the left -- how will be those on the left! And those foremost will be foremost.) Allah divides people into these three groups upon their death, as indicated by the end of this Surah. Allah mentioned them in His statement as well,

ثُمَّ أَوْرَثْنَا الْكِتَـبَ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَيْنَا مِنْ عِبَادِنَا فَمِنْهُمْ ظَـلِمٌ لِّنَفْسِهِ وَمِنْهُمْ مُّقْتَصِدٌ وَمِنْهُمْ سَابِقٌ بِالْخَيْرَتِ بِإِذُنِ اللَّهِ

(Then We gave the Book as inheritance to such of Our servants whom We chose. Then of them are some who wrong themselves, and of them are some who follow a middle course, and of them are some who are, by Allah's leave, foremost in good deeds.)(35:32) Muhammad bin Ka`b, Abu Hazrah Ya`qub bin Mujahid said that,

وَالسَّـبِقُونَ السَّـبِقُونَ

(And those foremost will be foremost.) is about the Prophets, peace be upon them, while As-Suddi said that they are the residents of the utmost highs (Ahl Al-`Illiyyin, in Paradise). The meaning of foremost is that they were foremost in performing the acts of righteousness just as Allah commanded them,

وَسَارِعُواْ إِلَى مَغْفِرَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَجَنَّةٍ عَرْضُهَا السَّمَـوَتُ وَالاٌّرْضُ

(And march forth in the way to forgiveness from your Lord, and for Paradise as wide as the heavens and the earth.)(3:133) and,

سَابِقُواْ إِلَى مَغْفِرَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَجَنَّةٍ عَرْضُهَا كَعَرْضِ السَّمَآءِ وَالاٌّرْضِ

(Race with one another in hastening towards forgiveness from your Lord, and Paradise the width whereof is as the width of the heaven and the earth.)(57:21) Therefore, those who rush to obey Allah in this life and are foremost in performing acts of righteousness, will be among the foremost believers honored in the Hereafter. Verily, the reward is according to the kind of deed, and as one does, so he is judged. So Allah said:

أُوْلَـئِكَ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ فِى جَنَّـتِ النَّعِيمِ

(These will be the nearest (to Allah). In the Gardens of Delight.)

Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an

Opening the discourse with this sentence by itself signifies that this is an answer to the objections that were than being raised in the disbelievers conferences against Resurrection. This was the time when the people of Makkah had just begun to hear the invitation to Islam from the Holy Prophet Muhammad (upon be Allah's peace and blessing). In it what seemed most astonishing and remote from reason to them was that the entire system of the earth and heavens would one day be overturned and then another world would be set up in which all the dead, of the former and the latter generations, would be resurrected. Bewildered they would ask: `This is just impossible ! Where will this earth, these oceans, these mountains, this moon and sun go? How will the centuries-old dead bodies rise up to life ? How can one in his senses believe that there will be another life after death and there will be gardens of Paradise and the fire of Hell ?" Such were the misgivings that were being expressed at that time everywhere in Makkah. It was against this background that it was said: "When the inevitable event happens, there shall be no one to belie it. "

In this verse the word "wagi ah " (event) has been used for Resurrection, which nearly means the same thing as the English word 'inevitable', signifying thereby that it is something that must come to pass. Then, its happening has been described by the word "waqi ah, " which is used for the sudden occurrence of a disaster. Laisa li-waq'at-i-ha kadhibat-un can have two meanings:

(1) That it will not be possible that its occurrence be averted, or stopped, or turned back; or, in other words, there will be no power to make it appear as an unreal event; and

(2) that there will be no living being to tell the lie that the event has not taken place.

Literally: "that which causes (something or somebody j to rise and to Fall. " Its one meaning can be that it will upset every order: it will turn things up-side-down. Another meaning also can be that it will exalt the lowly and bring low the high and mighty; that is, on its advent the decision as to who is noble and who is ignoble among the people will be made on quite a different basis. Those who posed as honorable people in the world, would become contemptible and those who were considered contemptible would become honorable.

That is, it will not be a local earthquake that may occur in a restricted area, but it will shake the whole earth to its depths all of a sudden, and it will experience a tremendous jolt and tremors all through.

Although the address apparently is directed to the people to whom this discourse was being recited, or who may read it or hear it read now, in fact the entire mankind is its addressee. All human beings who have been born since the first day of creation and will be born till the Day of Resurrection, will ultimately he divided into three classes.

The word maintanah in ashab al-maimanah, in the original, stay have been derived from Yamin, which means the right hand, and also from yumn, which means good omen. If it is taken to be derived from yamin, ashab almaimanah would mean: `those of the right hand." This, however, does not imply its lexical meaning, but it signifies the people of exalted rank and position. The Arabs regarded the right hand as a symbol of strength and eminence and honor, and therefore would seat a person whom they wished to do honor, on the right hand, in the assemblies. And if it is taken as derived from yumn, ashab almaimanah would mean fortunate and blessed people.

The word mash 'amah in ashab al-mash'amah, in the original, is from shu'm which means misfortune, ill-luck and bad omen; in Arabic the left hand also is called shuma. The Arabs regarded shimal (the left hand) and shu'm (bad omen) as synonyms, the left hand being a symbol of weakness and indignity. If a bird flew left on the commencement of a journey, they would take it as a bad omen; if they made a person sit on their left, it meant they regarded him as a weak man. Therefore, ashab al-mash'amah implies ill-omened people, or those who would suffer disgrace and ignominy, and would be made to stand on the left side in the Court of Allah.

Sabiqin (the Foremost) implies the people who excelled others in virtue and love of the truth and in good works and responded to the call of Allah and His Messenger before others. They were also in the forefront in their response to the call for Jihad, for expending their wealth for the sake of the needy and for public services, or for inviting others to virtue and truth, in short, for spreading the good and wiping out evil and making sacrifices and exerting themselves whenever there was need for it. On this very basis, in the Hereafter too, they will be placed in the forefront.

Thus, mankind, so to say, will be ranged in Allah's Court like this: On the right hand, there will be the righteous, on the left the wicked, and in the forefront (nearest in Divine Presence) the Sabiqin (the Foremost in Faith and good deeds). According to a Hadith reported by,Hadrat `A'ishah the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) asked the people: "Do you know who, on the Day of Resurrection, will he the first to be accommodated under the Divine Shade ?" The people said Allah and His Messenger only had the best knowledge. Thereupon the Holy Prophet replied: "Those who were such that when the Truth was presented before them, they accepted it forthwith; when a right was asked of them, they discharged it gracefully; and their decision in respect of others was the same as in respect of their own selves." (Musnad Ahmad).

The commentators have differed as to who are implied by the former And the latter people '`

One group of them has expressed the view that the "former people" were the communities that passed away since the time of the Prophet Adam (peace be upon him) till the time of the Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings), and the ¦people of the latter day" those who will have lived in the world since the advent of the Holy Prophet till the Day of Resurrection. Accordingly the verse would mean: "The number of the Sabqin (the Foremost in Faith and good deeds) among the people who passed away during the thousands of years before the advent of the Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings) would be greater, and the number of those who would attain to the rank of the Sabiqin among those people who have been born since the advent of the Holy Prophet, or will be born till the Day of Resurrection, will be less. "

The second group says that the former and the latter in this verse imply the former and the latter people of the Holy Prophet's own Ummah itself. That is, in his Ummah the people belonging to the earliest period were the former among whom the number of the Sabiqin will be greater, and the people of the later periods are the latter among whom the number of the Sabiqin will be smaller.

The third group holds the view that this- implies the former and the latter people of every Prophet's own Ummah. That is, there will be numerous Sabiqin among the earliest followers of every Prophet, but among his later followers their number will decrease. The words of the verse bear all the three meanings, and possibly all three ate implied, for there is no contradiction between them. Besides, they give another meaning also and that too is cornet: every early period of a Prophet's following the proportion of the Sabiqin in human population would be greater and in the later period less, for the number of the workers of good and right does not increase at the rate of increase of the human populations. They may be more numerous as against the Sabiqin of the earliest period. but on the whole their number as against the world population goes on becoming less and less.

Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs

And from his narration on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that he said regarding the interpretation of Allah's saying (When the event befalleth): '(When the event befalleth) He says: when the Day of Judgement comes.