41 - Fussilat (Explained in detail)

6 Tafsir(s) related to verse 41.1

Al-Jalalayn

Hā mīm: God knows best what He means by these [letters].

Al-Tustari

Ḥā MīmThat is, He decreed [everything] upon the Preserved Tablet (lawḥ maḥfūẓ), in which was inscribed all that exists [and will come into existence] (kāʾin).His words:

Ibn Al Kathir

Description of the Qur'an, and what Those Who turn away from it say.

حـم - تَنزِيلٌ مِّنَ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ

(Ha Mim. A revelation from the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.) means, the Qur'an is revealed from the Most Gracious, Most Merciful. This is like the Ayat:

قُلْ نَزَّلَهُ رُوحُ الْقُدُسِ مِن رَّبِّكَ بِالْحَقِّ

(Say Ruh Al-Qudus (Jibril) has brought it down from your Lord with truth) (16:102).

وَإِنَّهُ لَتَنزِيلُ رَبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ - نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الاٌّمِينُ - عَلَى قَلْبِكَ لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُنْذِرِينَ

(And truly, this is a revelation from the Lord of all that exists, Which the trustworthy Ruh (Jibril) has brought down upon your heart that you may be (one) of the warners.) (26:192-194).

كِتَـبٌ فُصِّلَتْ ءَايَـتُهُ

(A Book whereof the Ayat are explained in detail) means, its meanings are clear and its rulings are sound and wise.

قُرْءَاناً عَرَبِيّاً

(a Qur'an in Arabic) means, because it is a clear Arabic Qur'an, its meanings are precise and detailed and its words are clear and not confusing. This is like the Ayah:

كِتَابٌ أُحْكِمَتْ ءايَـتُهُ ثُمَّ فُصِّلَتْ مِن لَّدُنْ حَكِيمٍ خَبِيرٍ

((This is) a Book, the Ayat whereof are completed, and then explained in detail from One (Allah), Who is All-Wise Well-Acquainted) (11:1). meaning, it is miraculous in its wording and in its meanings.

لاَّ يَأْتِيهِ الْبَـطِلُ مِن بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَلاَ مِنْ خَلْفِهِ تَنزِيلٌ مِّنْ حَكِيمٍ حَمِيدٍ

(Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it, (it is) sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all praise.) (41:42).

لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ

(for people who know.) means, this clear style will be readily understood by scholars who are thoroughly versed in knowledge.

بَشِيراً وَنَذِيراً

(Giving glad tidings and warning,) means, sometimes it brings glad tidings to the believers, and sometimes it brings a warning to the disbelievers.

فَأَعْرَضَ أَكْثَرُهُمْ فَهُمْ لاَ يَسْمَعُونَ

(but most of them turn away, so they hear not.) means, most of the Quraysh did not understand anything of it at all, despite the fact that it was so clear.

وَقَالُواْ قُلُوبُنَا فِى أَكِنَّةٍ

(And they say: "Our hearts are under coverings...'') meaning, they are wrapped and screened,

مِمَّا تَدْعُونَا إِلَيْهِ وَفِى ءَاذانِنَا وَقْرٌ

(from that to which you invite us; and in our ears is deafness,) means, `we are deaf to the message you bring to us.'

وَمِن بَيْنِنَا وَبَيْنِكَ حِجَابٌ

(and between us and you is a screen,) `so nothing of what you say reaches us.'

فَاعْمَلْ إِنَّنَا عَـمِلُونَ

(so work you (on your way); verily, we are working) means, go your way, and we will go our way, and we will not follow you.

Kashf Al-Asrar

ḤāÌ Mīm

In other words, all that will come to be has been decreed [Ḥumm]. God is saying: "Whatever is be-able has come to be, whatever is doable I have done, whatever is runable I have run, whatever is choosable I have chosen, whatever is acceptable I have accepted, whatever is liftable I have lifted, whatever is throwable I have thrown. Whatever I wanted, I did; whatever I want, I do. When I have accepted someone, I do not look at the disloyalty I see from him. Rather, I pardon and pass over. I do not turn away from what I have said. With Me the word does not change [50:29]."

The Pir of the Tariqah said, "O God, the whole world wants You. What does the work is what You want. Happy is the one You want, for even if he turns back from You, You will be waiting in his road."

O chevalier! Whomever He wanted He wanted in the Beginningless, and whomever He ca- ressed, He caressed in the Beginningless. He did the work in the Beginningless, and today He shows what He did. He spoke the words in the Beginningless, and today He lets you hear the spo- ken words. He sewed the robes of honor in the Beginningless, and today He conveys them: Each day He is upon some task [55:29].

"My servant, you know Me today, but I am not of today. Your knowledge is today; but I am eternal. For some time I have been speaking to you of the mysteries, but you hear now. In the Beginningless I made the eternal hearing your deputy in listening to the beginningless word. In the Beginningless I made the eternal knowledge your deputy in knowing the beginningless attributes. When a guardian has an infant's property, he has it as the infant's deputy. When the infant reaches adulthood, he gives the property back to him. You were the infants of nonexistence. The eternal gentleness took care of your work and acted as your deputy. O you who await the arrival of Our gentleness! O you who look for the marks bearing witness to Our Unseen! Nothing drives friend- ship into your heart other than the ruling power of Our secret. No one strikes the knocker on the door of your heart other than the messenger of Our kindness."

Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an

This is a brief introduction to the Surah. A study of the following discourse can show what relevance the things mentioned in it have with the theme that follows. The first thing said is that this Word is being sent down by God, as if to say: "You, O people, may go on saying again and again that this Word is being composed by Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) but the fact is that its revelation is from God, Lord of the worlds. " Furthermore, the addressees have also been warned, so as to say: "If you express your displeasure on hearing this discourse. this displeasure is not against Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) tart against God. If you reject it, you reject Allah's Word, not of a man, and if you turn away from it, you do not turn away from a mart but from Allah."

Secondly, that the one sending it down is that God, Who is extremely Merciful (Rehman and Rahim) to His creatures. The mention of the attribute of mercy of the Sender of Revelation, instead of any other attributes, points to the truth that He has sent down this Word under the requirement of His mercifulness. By this the addressees have been warned, so as to say: ¦If someone spurns this Word, or rejects it. or expresses displeasure at it, he in fact is his own enemy "That is indeed a supreme blessing. which God has sent down, out of this infinite mercy, for the guidance and well-being and happiness of man. if God were merciless to mankind, He would have left them to wander about in darkness and would have least cared what pit they fell into. But this is His bounty and beneficence that along with bringing men into existence and providing for them He has taken on Himself the responsibility to show them the light of knowledge also in order to adorn their lives, and is sending down this Word to a servant of His for the same purpose. Now, who could be more ungrateful and a greater enemy of himself than the one who instead of benefiting from this mercy made up his mind to fight it?"

Thirdly that the verses of this Book are well-expounded. That is, there is nothing confusing and ambiguous in it so that somebody might excuse himself from accepting it on the ground that he was unable to understand the contents of the Book. It has been plainly told m it what is the truth and what is the falsehood, what arc the right beliefs and what are the wrong beliefs, what is good and what is evil, what is high morality and what is vice, in what way lies the good of man and in what he incurs loss for himself. If a person rejects such clear and manifest guidance, or pays no heed to it, he cannot offer any excuse for it. His attitude clearly implies that he wants to remain in the wrong willfully.

Fourthly, that this is an Arabic Qur'an, which implies this: "If this Qur'an had been sent down in some other language, the Arabs would have presented the excuse that they were ignorant of the language in which God had sent His Book. But this is their own language. They cannot put forward the excuse that they cannot understand it. (Here, one should keep in view verse 44 also, in which the same theme has been expressed in a different way, and the suspicion that in that case there is a reasonable excuse for the non-Arabs not to accept the message of the Qur'an, we have already removed in our commentary of Surah Yusuf: 2 and E.N. 2 on it. Please also see Rasa'il-o-Masa'il. Vol. I, pp. 19-23).

Fifthly, that this Book is for those who possess knowledge. That is, only the people of understanding can draw any benefit from this Book. For the ignorant it is as useless as a precious diamond for the one who cannot distinguish it from a mere stone.

Sixthly, that this Book gives good news and administers warning. That is, it does not consist of mere fantasy, or a philosophy, or a specimen of good literary composition, which one may accept or reject without entailing any consequence, but it is openly administering a warning to the whole world that the results of accepting and believing in it are marvelous and of rejecting it very dreadful. Thus only a fool could reject it with scant attention.

That is, "It has no way open to reach our hearts."

That is "This invitation has divided us: it has cut us off from you it leas become a hindrance for us to join you."

It has two meanings:

(1) "That we have nothing to do with you ;" and

(2) "that if you do not desist from your preaching, you may go on doing your mission, we also will not stop our opposition to you, and we will do whatever we can to defeat and frustrate your mission. "

Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs

And from his narration on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that he said regarding the interpretation of Allah's saying (Ha. Mim.): '(Ha. Mim.) He says: He has decreed that which will happen, i.e. it will be manifest, and it is also an oath by which He swore.