4 - An Nisa (The women)

6 Tafsir(s) related to verse 4.1

Al-Jalalayn

O people, of Mecca, fear your Lord, that is, His punishment by being obedient to Him, Who created you of a single soul, Adam, and from it created its mate, Eve (Hawwā’), from one of his left ribs, and from the pair of them, Adam and Eve, scattered, separated and spread, many men and, many, women; and fear God by whom you claim [your rights] from one another (tassā’alūna: the original tā’ [of tatasā’alūna] has been assimilated with the sīn; a variant reading has tasā’alūna), so that one of you says to the other, ‘I ask you, by God…’, or ‘For God’s sake…’; and, fear, kinship ties, lest you sever them (a variant reading [of wa’l-arhāma, ‘and kinship ties’] is wa’l-arhāmi, as a supplement to the pronoun contained in bihi [sc. God]). They used to implore one another by ties of kinship. Surely God has been watchful over you, heedful of your deeds, for which He will requite you, that is to say, He is ever possessed of such an attribute.

Al-Qushairi

O people, fear your Lord, Who created you of a single soul, and from it created its mate, and from the pair of them scattered many men and women; and fear God by whom you claim [your rights] from one another and kinship ties. Surely God has been watchful over you.

'People' (al-nās) is a generic noun whose etymology is uncertain. It is said man (al-ins) is called human (ins) because of his outward visibility (ẓuhūr). According to this, the allusion is: 'O you who I have made appear from the concealment of non-existence (ʿadam) by the decree of My prescriptive command (taklīf), then I chose whom I willed from you for My honoring, and deprived whom I willed among you of My guidance and giving knowledge, and moved you to what I willed - rather, conjoined you to what I willed by the decree of My free disposal'.

It is said: 'I did not cause anything else like you to appear from nonexistence and did not make appear to anyone else what I made appear to you in your states.

It is said: 'I named you 'mankind' (insān) because of your forgetfulness (nisyān). Surely, if you forget Me, there is nothing of lesser value than you but if you forget all that is other than me, there is none who sees more clearly than you'.

It is said there is no limit to the trial of the one who forgets the Real, while there is no end to the sublimity of the state of the one who forgets creation.

It is said: He said to the sinners, 'O you who have forgotten My covenant, who have rejected My love and gone beyond My limit, it is time for you to return to My door so that you may lay claim to My kindness and affirmation'. He said to those who know, 'O you who have forgotten your worldly portion in Us, and have kept your glance and expression from any other, your right has become of great magnitude for Us. Helping you has become incumbent with Us and your value has been exalted before us.

It is said, 'O you who have been gladdened (anista) by the breeze of My hospitality, who have found rest in the witness of My face, and who have been overcome by the majesty of My measure - you are the most sublime of My servants to Me'.

Kashani

O people, fear your Lord: be wary of claiming for yourselves His attribute when good things issue from you. Rather, adopt that attribute as a shield for you when good issues from you and say that it has issued from the Absolute Powerful, Who created you of a single soul, which is the universal rational-speech faculty that is the heart of the world, being the real Adam, and from it created its mate, that is, the animal soul that issues from it. They say that she was created from his left breast-bone from the aspect that is turned towards the world of engenderment, which is weaker than the aspect oriented towards the Truth. Were it not for its [the single soul's] mate, he [Adam] would not have been made to descend to this world, as is commonly known. Iblis seduced her first and by leading her astray he found the means to lead Adam astray. There is no doubt that corporeal attachment does not materialise except through the medium of this [animal soul]; and He scattered from the pair of them many men, that is, possessors of hearts who yearn for their father [Adam], and women, possessors of souls and natures yearning for their mother [his mate], and fear God, in His essence against affirming your existence and make it a shield for you when your remnants become manifest upon the annihilation in the Oneness lest you become veiled by inspecting the annihilation [as from you], by Whom, [since it is by Him] and not by yourselves that, you claim [your rights] from one another and kinship ties: in other words, be wary of severing the true kinship ties, that is, the near of kin who are the sublime points of origin, the disengaged realities (mufāraqāt) and the spirits of prophets and saints by not loving them, and make this love a protection for you so that you are able to actualise your felicities and perfections. For the severing of kinship ties by the absence of love is to be oriented away from conjunction and unity towards separation and multiplicity and constitutes the true loathing and the total distance from the Side of the Truth, exalted be He. That is why the Prophet said: 'The maintenance of kinship ties increases one's lifespan'; in other words, it necessarily results in abiding subsistence. Know also that kinship ties outwardly represent the form of true conjunction inwardly. The outward works like the inward in terms of the affirmation of Oneness and thus the one who is unable to look after the outward is more likely not to be able to look after the inward. Surely God has been watchful over you, watching over you lest you should be veiled from Him by the manifesting of one of your attributes or some of your remnants and then suffer chastisement.

Kashf Al-Asrar

O people, be wary of your Lord, who created you from one soul, created from it its mate, and scattered forth from the two many men and women. And be wary of God, whom you ask against one another, and of the wombs. Surely God is watcher over you.

"O center point of human nature, O attribute of mortal nature, make godwariness your shelter and cling to it, for the life of the servants is through it and the deliverance of the travelers in it."

Godwariness is for the servant to make the commands of the Shariah into his shield so that the arrows of prohibition may not reach him. It has three levels: First, he takes refuge in the sentence of tawḤīd and avoids every associationism. Second he takes refuge in obedience and steps away from the path of disobedience. Third he takes refuge in caution and flees from ambiguity. Anyone who climbs these way stations of godwariness with truthfulness will inescapably reach deliver- ance, for the Qur'an gives this report: "God will deliver those who were godwary in their place of security; ugliness will not touch them, neither shall they sorrow" [39:61]. In another place He says, "Whosoever is wary of God, He will appoint a way out for him and He will provide for him from whence he never reckoned [65:2-3]. Whenever someone takes hold of godwariness, We will ease for him the road of deliverance from every suffering and We will send him provision from whence he has no hope."

It has been said that the sister of Bishr Ḥāfī went to see AḤmad Ḥanbal. She said, "O Imam of the Muslims! I work a spindle on the roof of my house. When the torch of the Tahirids passes by, it may happen that I join threads with the rays of that torch. Is this permissible or not?"

AḤmad said, "First tell me who you are. Are you in a walkway of being able to tolerate such godwariness?"

She said, "I am the sister of Bishr Ḥāfī."

AḤmad wept and said, "Godwariness like this is permissible only in the household of Bishr Ḥāfī! It is not worthy of you, so be careful not to do it, and Bishr Ḥāfī will be happy with you. Emulate your brother so that perhaps you may be like him.

Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an

This introduction beautifully suits the subsequent laws and regulations about human rights, specially about the smooth running of the family life. On the one hand, the people have been urged to fear Allah so as to escape His displeasure; on the other, they have been reminded that all human beings have sprung from one and the same parents and are thus closely related to one another. "....He created you of a single soul".At first one human being was created and then from him the ttumatt race spread over the earth. Therefore they should strictly observe the ties and obligations of kin-ship. We learn from another part of the Qur'an that Adam was that "single soul." He was the first Man from whom the whole of mankind sprang up and spread over the earth. "....and of the same created his mate:" We have no definite detailed knowledge of how his mate was created of him. The commentators generally say that Eve was created from the rib of Adam and the Bible also contains the same story. The Talmud adds to it that she was created from the thirteenth rib of Adam. But the Qur'an is silent about it, and the Tradition of the Holy Prophet that is cited in support of this has a different meaning from what has been understood. The best thing, therefore, is to leave it undefined as it has been left in the Qur'an, and not to waste time in determining its details.

Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs

And on his authority from Ibn 'Abbas on Allah's saying: (O mankind!) [he said:] 'This is an expression of general applicability, but it could also be of particular applicability. (Be careful of your duty to your Lord) obey your Lord (Who created you) by means of copulation (from a single soul) from the soul of Adam alone, for the soul of Eve was included in his (and from it) from the soul of Adam (created its mate) Eve (and from them twain has spread abroad) He created through the copulation of Adam and Eve (a multitude of men and women) scores of human beings: male and female. (Be careful of your duty towards Allah) obey Allah (in Whom ye claim (your rights) of one another) your stuff and rights by Allah's right, (and towards the wombs (that bare you)) and also by the right of kinship and filiation; or it could also mean: keep the ties of kinship and do not sever them. (Lo! Allah hath been a Watcher over you) He has been a Protector: He shall ask you about that which He has commanded you of acts of obedience and keeping ties of kinship.