38 - Saad

6 Tafsir(s) related to verse 38.1

Al-Jalalayn

Sād: God knows best what He means by this [letter]. By the Qur’ān bearing the Remembrance, that is, [bearing] the Pronouncement; or [what is meant is that the Qur’ān is a Book] of renown (the response to this oath has been omitted, in other words: ‘It is not as the Meccan disbelievers say, that there are many gods’).

Al-Tustari

Ṣād. By the Qurʾān endowed with the Remembrance!He said:That is, endowed with healing power (al-shaʾn al-shāfī) and sufficient admonition (al-waʿẓ al-kāfī).His words:

Ibn Al Kathir

وَالْقُرْءَانِ ذِى الذِّكْرِ

(By the Qur'an full of reminding.) means, by the Qur'an which includes all that is in it as a reminder and a benefit to people in this life and the Hereafter. Ad-Dahhak said that the Ayah,

ذِى الذِّكْرِ

(full of reminding.) is like the Ayah,

لَقَدْ أَنزَلْنَآ إِلَيْكُمْ كِتَـباً فِيهِ ذِكْرُكُمْ

(Indeed, We have sent down for you (O mankind) a Book in which there is Dhikrukum) (21:10). i.e., your reminder. This was also the view of Qatadah and of Ibn Jarir. Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Isma`il bin Abi Khalid, Ibn `Uyaynah, Abu Husayn, Abu Salih and As-Suddi said:

ذِى الذِّكْرِ

(full of reminding.) "Full of honor,'' i.e., of high standing. There is no contradiction between the two views, because it is a noble Book which includes reminders and leaves no excuse and brings warnings. The reason for this oath is to be found in the Ayah:

إِن كُلٌّ إِلاَّ كَذَّبَ الرٌّسُلَ فَحَقَّ عِقَابِ

(Not one of them but denied the Messengers; therefore My torment was justified.) (38:14). Qatadah said, "The reason for it is to be found in the Ayah:

بَلِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ فِى عِزَّةٍ وَشِقَاقٍ

(Nay, those who disbelieve are in false pride and opposition).'' This was the view favored by Ibn Jarir.

بَلِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ فِى عِزَّةٍ وَشِقَاقٍ

(Nay, those who disbelieve are in false pride and opposition.) means, in this Qur'an there is a reminder for those who will be reminded and a lesson for those who will learn a lesson, but the disbelievers will not benefit from it because they

فِى عِزَّةٍ

(are in false pride) meaning, arrogance and tribalism,

وَشِقَاقٍ

(and opposition.) means, they are stubbornly opposed to it and go against it. Then Allah scares them with news of how the nations who came before them were destroyed because of their opposition to the Messengers and their disbelief in the Scriptures that were revealed from heaven. Allah says:

كَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا مِن قَبْلِهِم مِّن قَرْنٍ

(How many a generation have We destroyed before them!) meaning, disbelieving nations.

فَنَادَوْاْ

(And they cried out) means, when the punishment came to them, they called for help and cried out to Allah, but that did not save them at all. This is like the Ayat:

فَلَمَّآ أَحَسُّواْ بَأْسَنَآ إِذَا هُمْ مِّنْهَا يَرْكُضُونَ - لاَ تَرْكُضُواْ وَارْجِعُواْ إِلَى مَآ أُتْرِفْتُمْ فِيهِ وَمَسَـكِنِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُسْأَلُونَ

(Then, when they perceived (saw) Our torment, behold, they (tried to) flee from it. Flee not, but return to that wherein you lived a luxurious life, and to your homes, in order that you may be questioned.) (21:12-13). Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded that At-Tamimi said, "I asked Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, about the Ayah:

فَنَادَواْ وَّلاَتَ حِينَ مَنَاصٍ

(And they cried out when there was no longer time for escape.) He said that it was not the time for them to call or flee or escape. Muhammad bin Ka`b said, concerning the Ayah:

فَنَادَواْ وَّلاَتَ حِينَ مَنَاصٍ

(And they cried out when there was no longer time for escape.) "They called for Tawhid when their lives were over, and they resorted to repentance when their lives were over.'' Qatadah said, "When they saw the punishment, they wanted to repent when there was no longer time to call out.'' Mujahid said:

فَنَادَواْ وَّلاَتَ حِينَ مَنَاصٍ

(And they cried out when there was no longer time for escape.) "It was not the time to flee or escape.'' Allah says:

وَّلاَتَ حِينَ مَنَاصٍ

(when there was no longer time for escape.) meaning, there was no time to escape or run away; and Allah knows best.

Kashf Al-Asrar

ṣād

The word ṣād is the key to His name Self-Sufficient [ṣamad]. The Self-Sufficient is He who is hallowed beyond encompassment by the knowledge of the created thing and incomparable with comprehension by the recognitions.

He is saying, "I am the Self-Sufficient and have no need for anyone. I am the One and have no associate. I am the Compeller, and no one has the color of union with Me. I am the Owner of the kingdom, and no matter what I do, no one has the gall to protest or a way to fight."

Abu'l-Ḥasan Kharaqānī said, "He cut up the hearts of the sincerely truthful and turned their livers to water through waiting, but He gave Himself to no one."

Whence do water and dust become privy to talk of union with that which has no beginning and no end? What access do the attributes of the newly arrived things have to eternity? How can that which was not, then was, then was not, perceive the majestic presence of the Possessor of Majesty? That chevalier said it beautifully:

"They opened a door to the garden of union with You so that people would fall into coveting You.

They plundered so many of the spirits of the great ones, but not one put his foot at the top of Your street."

It has been said that the Real is the Self-Sufficient, and the meaning of the name is that the servants should lift up their needs to Him, consign their occupations to Him, and entrust themselves to Him; and He, in His unneediness, will look upon the needs of everyone and be sufficient for their every occupation.

When the tawḤīd-voicing, faithful servant has this belief, He will take as his shelter nothing but His threshold and will not disgrace himself at the door of any poor and paltry thing. "A created thing seeking aid from a created thing is like a prisoner seeking aid from a prisoner."

It has come in the traditions that tomorrow a man of this community will be brought forward, and many sashes of unbelief will be removed from his waist-I mean sashes of the heart, not outward sashes, for anyone who attaches his heart to a creature has bound a sash around his heart. O chevalier! There is no mount quicker than the mount of MuḤammad the Arab, and no playing field vaster than his playing field.

Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an

Although like all other enigmatic letters (mugatta'at) it is difficult to determine the meaning of the letter Suad also, yet the interpretation of it given by Ibn 'Abbas and Dahhak is quite plausible. According to them, it implies: Sadiq-un fi' qauli-hi, or Sadaqa Muhammad-un: Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings) is Truthful: whatever he says is the very Truth.

The words dhi-dh-dhikr of the Text can have two meanings: (1) Dhi sharaf: the noble Qur'an; and (2) Dhi at-tadhkir: the Qur'an which is full of admonition, or the Qur'an which serves as a reminder, or arouses a heedless person.

If the interpretation given of suad by Ibn 'Abbas and Dahhak is accepted, the sentence would mean this: "By this noble Qur'an, or by this Qur'an which is full of admonition, Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) is presenting the Truth, but the people who persist in their denial, are in fact, involved in arrogance and stubbornness." And if suad is taken as one of those enigmatic letters whose meaning cannot be determined, then the answer to the oath is omitted, which is indicated by "but" and the sentence following it. The meaning then would be: "The reason for the denial of these disbelievers is not that the religion which is being presented before them is unsound, or that Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) has shown some slackness in the matter of presenting the Truth before them, but their own boasting and bragging, their haughtiness and stubbornness, and this is borne out by this Qur'an itself, which is full of admonition. Every unbiased person who studies it will admit that fill justice has been done in it to the task of making the people understand the Truth.

Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs

And from his narration on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that he said upon the interpretation of Allah's saying (Sad.): '(Sad.) He says: Sad by the Qur'an, i.e. repeat the Qur'an until you distinguish between faith and disbelief, the prophetic wont and blameworthy innovation, truthfulness and lying, the lawful and the unlawful, good and evil; it is also said that Sad stands for barring (sadd) from the guidance, i.e. the barring of the people of Mecca from the Truth and guidance; it is also said that it stands for Abu Jahl; and it is also said that it stands for truthful (sadiq) in his speech; and it is also said that Sad is one of Allah's names; and it is also said that it is an oath by which Allah swore (By the renowned Qur'an) by the Qur'an which possesses honour and clarity of exposition; it is an honour to those who believe in it and it is a clear exposition of the people of old as well as of future generations of people. Allah swore by the Qur'an,