33 - Al Ahzab (The allies)

4 Tafsir(s) related to verse 33.48

Al-Jalalayn

And do not obey the disbelievers and the hypocrites, in [assenting to do] what contravenes your Law; and disregard, leave aside, their injuriousness — do not retaliate against them for it until you receive a command [from God] regarding [how to deal with] them. And put your trust in God, for He will suffice you, and God suffices as Guardian, One to Whom matters are entrusted.

Ibn Al Kathir

The Attributes of the Messenger of Allah

Imam Ahmad recorded that `Ata' bin Yasar said that he met `Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`As, may Allah be pleased with him, and said to him:

"Tell me about the description of the Messenger of Allah in the Tawrah.'' He said, "Yes, by Allah, he was described in the Tawrah with some of the qualities with which he was described in the Qur'an: `O Prophet! Verily, We have sent you as witness, and a bearer of glad tidings, and a warner, a saviour to the illiterate. You are My servant and My Messenger and I have called you Al-Mutawakkil (reliant). You are not harsh or severe, or noisy in the marketplaces. You do not repay evil with evil, but you overlook and forgive. Allah will not take your soul until you make straight those who have deviated and they say La ilaha illallah, words with which blind eyes, deaf ears and sealed hearts will be opened'.'' It was also recorded by Al-Bukhari in the Books of Business and At-Tafsir. Wahb bin Munabbih said: "Allah revealed to one of the Prophets of the Children of Israel whose name was Sha`ya' (Isaiah); `Stand up among your people the Children of Israel and I shall cause your tongue to utter (words of) revelation. I shall send an unlettered (Prophet) from among the illiterate (people). He will not be harsh or severe, or noisy in the marketplaces. If he were to pass by a lamp, it would not be extinguished, because of his tranquillity. If he were to walk on reeds no sound would be heard from under his feet. I will send him as a bearer of glad tidings and as a warner, who will never utter immoral speech. Through him I will open blind eyes, deaf ears and sealed hearts. I will guide him to do every good deed and I will bestow upon him every noble characteristic. I will make tranquillity his garment, righteousness his banner, piety his conscience, wisdom his speech, truthfulness and loyalty his nature, tolerance and goodness his character, truth his way, justice his conduct, guidance his leader, Islam his nation. Ahmad is his name and through him I will guide people after they have gone astray, teach them after they have been ignorant, raise their status after they were nothing, make them known after they were unknown, increase the number (of followers of the truth) after they have been few, make them rich after they have been poor, and bring them togther after they have been divided. Through him I will bring together different nations and hearts, and reconcile opposing desires. Through him I will save great numbers of people from their doom. I will make his Ummah the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind; they will enjoin good and forbid evil, sincerely believing in Me Alone and accepting as truth all that My Messengers have brought. I shall inspire them to glorify, praise and magnify Me Alone in their places of worship and in their gatherings, when they lie down and when they return home. They will pray to Me standing and sitting. They will fight for the sake of Allah in ranks and armies. They will go forth from their homes by the thousand, seeking My pleasure, washing their faces and limbs, girding their loins. Their sacrifice will be their blood and their holy Book will be in their hearts. They will be like monks by night and like lions by day. Among the members of his family and his offspring I will make those who are foremost (in faith) and believers in the truth and martyrs and righteous people. His Ummah after him will lead people with truth and establish justice therewith. I will give strength to those who support them and help those who pray for them, and I will inflict defeat upon those who oppose them or transgress against them or seek to take something from their hands. I will make them the heirs of their Prophet, calling people to their Lord, enjoining what is good, forbidding what is evil, establishing regular prayer, paying the Zakah and fulfilling their promises. Through them I will complete the goodness which I started with the first of them. This is My bounty which I bestow upon whomsoever I will, and I am the Possessor of great bounty.'''

شَاهِداً

(as witness) means, a witness to Allah's Oneness, for there is no God except He, and a witness against mankind for their deeds on the Day of Resurrection.

وَجِئْنَا بِكَ عَلَى هَـؤُلاءِ شَهِيداً

(and We bring you as a witness against these people) (4:41). This is like the Ayah:

لِّتَكُونُواْ شُهَدَآءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ عَلَيْكُمْ شَهِيدًا

(that you be witnesses over mankind and the Messenger be a witness over you) (2:143).

وَمُبَشِّراً وَنَذِيراً

(and a bearer of glad tidings, and a warner.) means, a bearer of glad tidings to the believers of a great reward, and a warner to the disbelievers of a great punishment.

وَدَاعِياً إِلَى اللَّهِ بِإِذْنِهِ

(And as one who invites to Allah by His leave,) means, `you call mankind to worship their Lord because He has commanded you to do so. '

وَسِرَاجاً مُّنِيراً

(and as a lamp spreading light.) means, `the Message that you bring is as clear as the sun shining brightly, and no one can deny it except those who are stubborn.'

وَلاَ تُطِعِ الْكَـفِرِينَ وَالْمُنَـفِقِينَ وَدَعْ أَذَاهُمْ

(And obey not the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and harm them not.) means, `do not obey them and do not pay attention to what they say.'

وَدَعْ أَذَاهُمْ

(and harm them not.) means, `overlook and ignore them, for their matter rests entirely with Allah and He is sufficient for them (to deal with them).' Allah says:

وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ وَكَفَى بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلاً

(And put your trust in Allah, and sufficient is Allah as a Trustee.)

Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an

After admonishing the Muslims, Allah now addresses a few words of consolation to His Prophet, as if to say: `We have blessed you with such and such a high rank and raised you to an exalted place of honor. Your opponents will not be able to harm you in any way by their propaganda campaign of slander and calumny. Therefore, you should not take their mischief to heart, nor give any weight to their propaganda. You should continue doing the duties of your mission, and let them utter whatever nonsense they like." Along with this, incidentally, the other people, both the believers and the unbelievers, also have been told that the person they have to deal with is not an ordinary man but a great personality, whom Allah has raised to the highest ranks of honor and glory.

The meaning of the Prophet's being a "witness" is very vast. It includes three kinds of evidence:

(1) Verbal evidence, i.e. the Prophet should bear out the truth of the realities and principles on which Allah's Religion is based and tell the world plainly that they are the truth and all that is opposed to them is falsehood. He should rise to proclaim without hesitation and fear the Being of Allah and His Unity, the existence of the angels, the corning down of Revelation, the occurrence of life-after-death, the Hell and Heaven, all arc realities, even if they appear strange to the world, and the people mock the one presenting them, or call him a madman. Likewise, the Prophet should openly present before the people the concepts, values, principles and rules pertaining to morality and civilization and social life that God has revealed to him, and reject as wrong all the concepts and ways which are prevalent and are opposed to them, even if the whole world rejects them as wrong and violates them in practice. Similarly, the Prophet should proclaim as lawful what is lawful in Allah's Law even if the whole world regards it as unlawful, and should proclaim as unlawful whatever is unlawful in Allah's Law even if the world regards it as lawful and pure.

(2) Practical evidence: That is, the Prophet in his own life should practically demonstrate all that he has been commissioned to present before the world. His life should be free from every shade of that which he calls evil, and his own character should clearly reflect that which he calls good; he should be the foremost in carrying out what he regards as obligatory, and most cautious in refraining from what he calls sinful. He should exert his utmost to enforce the code of life which he calls Divine. His own character and conduct should bear out how sincere and truthful he is in his invitation; and his own self should be such a model of his teaching that anyone who sees him should know what kind of a man he wants to produce by the Faith to which he invites the world, what kind of a character he wants to instill in him and what system of life he wants to be established through him in the world.

(3) Evidence in the Hereafter That is, when the Court of Allah is established in the Hereafter, the Prophet should give evidence to prove that he had conveyed to the people the whole message, without making any alteration or change in it, that had been entrusted to him, and that he had shown no slackness in making the truth manifest before them, by word and by deed. On the basis of this evidence it will be determined what reward the believers deserve and what punishment the disbelievers deserve

From this one can have an idea of how great a responsibility had Allah placed upon the Holy Prophet by raising him to the position of a "witness", and how great should be the personality worthy of that high position. Evidently, there has been no slackness whatever on the part of the Holy Prophet in the matter of giving evidence with regard to the Faith, verbally as well as practically. That is why in the Hereafter he will be able to testify that he had made the Truth plain to the people, and that is how Allah's argument will be established against them; otherwise, if, God forbid, there had been any slackness on the pan of the Prophet in providing evidence, he could neither be a witness against them in the Hereafter nor could any case be established against the deniers of the truth.

Some people have tried to give a different interpretation to the word witness". They say that the Holy Prophet in the Hereafter will bear witness to the acts and deeds of the people. From this they conclude that the Holy Prophet is watching and witnessing the acts of all the people; otherwise he could not bear the witness. But according to the Qur'an this interpretation is absolutely wrong. The Qur'an tells us that Allah has arranged a different system for recording the acts of the people. For this purpose His angels are preparing the conduct-book of every person. (See in this connection Surah Qaf: 17-18, and Al-Kahf: 49). After this He will make the people's own limbs also to bear witness against them. (Ya Sin: 65, Ha Mim As-Sajdah: 20-21). As for the Prophets, they are not to testify to the acts of the people, but to give evidence to prove that they had conveyed the Truth to the people. The Qur'an clearly says:

"On the Day when Allah will assemble all the Messengers, He will ask: 'What was the response you received?' They will answer, `We have no knowledge: You alone have the full knowledge of all that is hidden'." (AI-Ma`idah: 109)

In the same connection, the Quran says about the Prophet Jesus that when he will be questioned about the deviation of the Christians, he will say: "I was a witness to their conduct as long as I remained among them, but after You recalled me. You watched over them." (AI-Ma'idah: 117)

These verses clearly show that the Prophets will not be witnesses in regard to the acts of the people. As to what they will bear witness to the Qur'an gives an equally clear answer:

"O Muslims, We have made you a community of the 'Golden Mean' so that you may be witnesses in regard to mankind and the Messenger may be a witness in regard to you." (AI-Baqarah: 143)

"(O Muhammad, warn them of) the Day when We shall call a witness from among every community to testify against it. And We shall call you to testify against these people." (An-Nahl: 89)

This shows that on the Day of Resurrection the Holy Prophet's evident in its nature will not be any different from the evidence for bearing which the Holy Prophet's community and the witnesses in regard to every other community will be summoned. Evidently, if it be an evidence in regard to the acts, then the omnipresence of all of them also becomes necessary. And if these witnesses will be called to give evidence to confirm that the Creator's message had reached His creation, inevitably the Holy Prophet also will be called upon to give a similar evidence.

The same is supported by the Hadith which Bukhari. Muslim, Tirmidhi. Ibn Majah, lmam Ahmad and others have related on the authority of 'Abdullah bin 'Mas'ud, 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas, Abu ad-Darda', Anas bin Malik and many other Companions (may Allah be pleased with them all), whose common theme is this: 'The Holy Prophet on the Day of Resurrection will sec some of his Companions bing brought, but instead of caning to him they will either be going or being pushed to the other side. Thereupon the Holy Prophet will say: 'O Allah, they are my Companions!' Allah will say: 'You do not know what misdeeds they committed after you'." This theme has been reported by numerous Companions and with so many chains of authorities that there remains no doubt about its authenticity. This proves that the Holy Prophet is not at all a witness to each individual of his community acid to each of his acts. As for the hadith which says that the acts of the people of his Ummah are presented before him, it does not in any way contradict this, because its purport is that Allah keeps him informed of the affairs of his Ummah, which does not mean that the Holy Prophet is actually witnessing the acts of every person.

One should note that a person's giving the good news of a good end for belief and righteous acts and the warning of an evil end for disbelief and evil acts, in his personal capacity, is a different thing, and another's being appointed by Allah as a bearer of the good news and a warner is quite another thing. The one who is appointed to this office by Allah necessarily possesses an authority to give the good news and administer the warnings due to which his good news and his warnings are invested with legality. His giving a good news for an act has the meaning that the Greatest of all Judges, Who has sent him, approves of the act and holds it worthy of a reward; so, it is certainly imperative or obligatory or commendable in nature, and its doer will surely get a reward. On the other hand, his giving a warning of an evil end for an act has the meaning that the Sovereign forbids that act; so, it is certainly sinful and unlawful, and its doer will surely be punished. The good news and warnings of the one who is not divinely appointed cannot ever be invested with such an authority.

Here also the same difference as pointed out above exists between the preaching of a common man and of a Prophet. As for the invitation to Allah, it is given, and can be given, by every preacher, but he is not appointed by Allah to do so. Contrary to this, a Prophet rises to call the people towards Allah by the leave of Allah. His call is not mere preaching but has also the support of the authority of the Lord of the Universe, Who sent him. That is why resistance and opposition to the inviter to Allah amounts to rebellion against Allah Himself precisely as resistance to a government official when he is performing official duty is regarded as hostile to the government itself.

Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs

Allah then went back to the subject of the beginning of the surah, saying: (And incline not) O Muhammad (to the disbelievers) of Mecca: Abu Sufyan and his host (and the hypocrites) of Medina. (Disregard their noxious talk) and do not proceed to kill them, O Muhammad, (and put thy trust in Allah) rely on Allah. (Allah is sufficient as Trustee) He is sufficient to fulfil His promise to give you victory; it is also said that this means: He is sufficient as a Protector.