28 - Al Qasas (The narrative)

5 Tafsir(s) related to verse 28.1

Al-Jalalayn

Tā sīn mīm: God knows best what He means by these [letters].

Ibn Al Kathir

The Story of Musa and Fir`awn, and what Allah intended for Their People

We have already discussed the significance of the separate letters.

تِلْكَ ءَايَـتُ الْكِتَـبِ الْمُبِينِ

(These are the Ayat of the manifest Book.) means the Book which is clear and makes plain the true reality of things, and tells us about what happened and what will happen.

نَتْلُواْ عَلَيْكَ مِن نَّبَإِ مُوسَى وَفِرْعَوْنَ بِالْحَقِّ

(We recite to you some of the news of Musa and Fir`awn in truth,) This is like the Ayah,

نَحْنُ نَقُصُّ عَلَيْكَ أَحْسَنَ الْقَصَصِ

(We relate unto you the best of stories) (12:3). which means, `We tell you about things as they really were, as if you are there and are seeing them yourself.' Then Allah says:

إِنَّ فِرْعَوْنَ عَلاَ فِى الاٌّرْضِ

(Verily, Fir`awn exalted himself in the land) means, he was an arrogant oppressor and tyrant.

وَجَعَلَ أَهْلَهَا شِيَعاً

(and made its people Shiya`) means, he made them into different classes, each of which he used to do whatever he wanted of the affairs of his state.

يَسْتَضْعِفُ طَآئِفَةً مِّنْهُمْ

(weakening a group among them. ) This refers to the Children of Israel, who at that time were the best of people, even though this tyrant king overpowered them, using them to do the most menial work and forcing them to hard labor night and day for him and his people. At the same time, he was killing their sons and letting their daughters live, to humiliate them and because he feared that there might appear among them the boy who would be the cause of his destruction and the downfall of his kingdom. So Fir`awn took precautions against that happening, by ordering that all boys born to the Children of Israel should be killed, but this precaution did not protect him against the divine decree, because when the term of Allah comes, it cannot be delayed, and for each and every matter there is a decree from Allah. Allah says:

وَنُرِيدُ أَن نَّمُنَّ عَلَى الَّذِينَ اسْتُضْعِفُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ

(And We wished to do a favor to those who were weak in the land,) until His saying;

يَحْذَرُونَ

(which they feared.) And Allah did indeed do this to them, as He says:

وَأَوْرَثْنَا الْقَوْمَ الَّذِينَ كَانُواْ يُسْتَضْعَفُونَ

(And We made the people who were considered weak) until His saying;

يَعْرِشُونَ

(they erected) (7:137). And Allah said:

كَذَلِكَ وَأَوْرَثْنَـهَا بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ

(Thus and We caused the Children of Israel to inherit them) (26: 59). Fir`awn hoped that by his strength and power he would be saved from Musa, but that did not help him in the slightest. Despite his great power as a king he could not oppose the decree of Allah, which can never be overcome. On the contrary, Allah's ruling was carried out, for it had been written and decreed from past eternity that Fir`awn would meet his doom at the hands of Musa.

Kashf Al-Asrar

ṬāÌ Sīn Mīm

ṬāÌ alludes to the recognizer's heart, its purity [Ṭahāra] of everything other than He. Sīn alludes to His secret [sirr] with His friends in their contemplation of His majesty and beauty. Mīm alludes to His favors [minna] toward the faithful in His blessings and bounties.

Wherever talk of Him goes, the session becomes fragrant. Wherever there is listening to His name and mark, the spirits become luminous. In the 18,000 worlds, no one can step on the carpet of His success-giving without His help and gentleness. In the two realms of being and the two worlds, life is not given over to anyone unless by His protection and kind favor.

The great ones of the religion have said that the chevaliers and the friends of the Real have three sorts of life: life through remembrance, life through recognition, and life through finding. The fruit of the life of remembrance is intimacy, the fruit of the life of recognition is stillness, and the fruit of the life of finding is annihilation. In reality, this annihilation is subsistence. Until you have been annihilated from yourself you will not subsist through Him. Abū Saʿīd Kharrāz said, "I was at Arafat on the Day of Arafa and I saw that the hajjis were making supplications and weeping beautifully: on every tongue a remembrance, in every heart a fervor, in every soul a passion, in every corner a burning and a need, with everyone a pain and a melting. The wish arose in me that I also should make a supplication and ask for something. I asked myself what supplication I should make and what I should ask, since everything needed is given unasked for; it is made ready and taken care of without being spoken. In the end I made the intention to open up the road of the Haqiqah to Him and to supplicate. He inspired in my secret core, 'You want something from Me after finding Me?'"

In wonder the violet keeps on saying, "Strange-

if someone has the Friend's tresses, why would he pick me?" Abū Saʿīd stepped back from that and kept on reciting this verse:

"Your loyalty clings inside my heart,

Your love is my goal, yearning my supplies."

Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an

For comparison, see Al-Baqarah: 47-59, AI-A'raf: 100-141, Yunus: 75-92. Hud: 96-109, Bani Isra'il: 101-111, Maryam: 51-53. Ta Ha: 1-89, Al- Mu'minun: 45-49, Ash-Shu`araa: 10-68, An-Naml: 7-14, Al-`Ankabut: 39-40, Al-Mu'min: 23-50, Az-Zukhruf: 46-56, Ad-Dukhan: 1 7-33, Adh-Dhariyat: 38-40, An-Naziyat: 1 5-26.

That is, "For the benefit of those who are not obstinate and stubborn, for it would be useless to address those who are not at all inclined to listen to you.

Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs

And from his narration on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that he said regarding the interpretation of Allah's saying (Ta. Sin. Mim.): '(Ta. Sin. Mim.) The (Ta) stands for His might (tawluh), the (Sin) for His majesty (sana'uh) and the (Mim) for His kingdom (mulkuh); it is also said that this is an oath by which He swore.