25 - Al Furqan (The discrimination)

5 Tafsir(s) related to verse 25.1

Al-Jalalayn

Blessed, exalted, is He Who revealed the Criterion (al-furqān), the Qur’ān — called thus [al-furqān] because it has discriminated (faraqa) between truth and falsehood — to His servant, Muhammad (s), that he may be to all the worlds, [to] mankind and the jinn, but not the angels, a warner, a threatening of God’s chastisement.

Al-Tustari

Blessed is He who revealed the Criterion"Sahl said:That is, Majestic and Exalted is He who privileged Muḥammad by revealing to him the Criterion (furqān), that he may distinguish truth from falsehood, friend from foe, and the one who is close [to God] from the one who is remote [from Him]; to His servant, that is, to His purest servant, His most privileged Prophet, His closest beloved, and the foremost of His elect; that he may be to all the worlds a warner, that is, so that he may be a lamp (sirāj) and a light (nūr), by which We guide people to [follow] the rulings of the Qurʾān, so that they can proceed thereby according to the path of truth (ṭarīq al-ḥaqq) and the way of veracity (minhaj al-ṣidq).His words:

Ibn Al Kathir

Blessed be Allah

Here Allah praises Himself for the Noble Qur'an He has revealed to His noble Messenger. This is like the Ayat:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِى أَنْزَلَ عَلَى عَبْدِهِ الْكِتَـبَ وَلَمْ يَجْعَل لَّهُ عِوَجَا قَيِّماً لِّيُنْذِرَ بَأْسًا شَدِيدًا مِّن لَّدُنْهُ وَيُبَشِّرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ الصَّـلِحَاتِ

(All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has sent down to His servant the Book, and has not placed therein any crookedness. (He has made it) straight to give warning of a severe punishment from Him, and to give glad tidings to the believers, who do righteous deeds...) 18:1-2Here Allah says:

تَبَارَكَ

(Blessed be He.) The verbal form used here implies an ongoing, permanent, eternal blessing.

الَّذِى نَزَّلَ الْفُرْقَانَ

(Who sent down the criterion) The verb Nazzala is a form which implies something done a great deal and often. This is like the Ayah:

وَالْكِتَـبِ الَّذِى نَزَّلَ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَـبِ الَّذِى أَنَزلَ مِن قَبْلُ

(And the Book which He (Nazzala) sent down to His Messenger, and the Scripture which He (Anzala) sent down to those before (him)) (4:136). Each of the previous Books was sent down at one time, but the Qur'an was revealed gradually, in stages, Ayat after Ayat, rulings after rulings, Surahs after Surahs. This is more eloquent and indicative of greater care for the one to whom it is revealed, as Allah says later in this Surah:

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لَوْلاَ نُزِّلَ عَلَيْهِ الْقُرْءَانُ جُمْلَةً وَحِدَةً كَذَلِكَ لِنُثَبِّتَ بِهِ فُؤَادَكَ وَرَتَّلْنَاهُ تَرْتِيلاً - وَلاَ يَأْتُونَكَ بِمَثَلٍ إِلاَّ جِئْنَـكَ بِالْحَقِّ وَأَحْسَنَ تَفْسِيراً

(And those who disbelieve say: "Why is not the Qur'an revealed to him all at once'' Thus, that We may strengthen your heart thereby. And We have revealed it to you gradually, in stages. And no example or similitude do they bring, but We reveal to you the truth, and the better explanation thereof.) (25:32-33) This Surah was named Al-Furqan, because it is the criterion that decides between truth and falsehood, guidance and misguidance, right and wrong, lawful and unlawful.

عَلَى عَبْدِهِ

(to His servant) This description is one of praise and commendation, because here Allah is connecting him to Himself, describing him as His servant. Allah also described him in this manner when referring to the noblest of events, the Night of the Isra', as He said:

سُبْحَانَ الَّذِى أَسْرَى بِعَبْدِهِ لَيْلاً

(Glorified be He Who took His servant for a journey by night) (17:1). Allah also described him in this way when He described how he stood and called to Him:

وَأَنَّهُ لَّمَا قَامَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ يَدْعُوهُ كَادُواْ يَكُونُونَ عَلَيْهِ لِبَداً

(And when the servant of Allah stood up invoking Him in prayer they (the Jinn) just made round him a dense crowd as if sticking one over the other (in order to listen to the Prophet's recitation).) (72:19) This description is also used here when Allah describes how the Book is revealed to him and how the angel comes down to him:

تَبَارَكَ الَّذِى نَزَّلَ الْفُرْقَانَ عَلَى عَبْدِهِ لِيَكُونَ لِلْعَـلَمِينَ نَذِيراً

(Blessed be He Who sent down the criterion to His servant that he may be a warner to all nations.)

لِيَكُونَ لِلْعَـلَمِينَ نَذِيراً

(that he may be a warner to all nations.) means, he alone has been blessed with this great, detailed, clear Book which,

لاَّ يَأْتِيهِ الْبَـطِلُ مِن بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَلاَ مِنْ خَلْفِهِ تَنزِيلٌ مِّنْ حَكِيمٍ حَمِيدٍ

(Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it, (it is) sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all praise (Allah).) (41:42) The One Who made it the mighty criterion, singled him out to convey it to those who seek the shade of trees and to those who live on the land (i.e., to all of mankind, nomad and settled alike), as the Prophet said:

«بُعِثْتُ إِلَى الْأَحْمَرِ وَالْأَسْوَد»

(I have been sent to the red and the black.) And he said:

«إِنِّي أُعْطِيتُ خَمْسًا لَمْ يُعْطَهُنَّ أَحَدٌ مِنَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ قَبْلِي»

(I have been given five things which no Prophet before me was given. ) Among them he mentioned:

«كَانَ النَّبِيُّ يُبْعَثُ إِلَى قَوْمِهِ خَاصَّةً وَبُعِثْتُ إِلَى النَّاسِ عَامَّة»

(Before mea Prophet was sent only to his own people, but I have been sent to all of mankind.) And Allah says:

قُلْ يَأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا

(Say: "O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah...'') (7:158), meaning, the One Who has sent me is the Sovereign of the heaven and the earth, who merely says to a thing "Be!'' and it is. He is the one who gives life and causes death. Allah says here:

الَّذِى لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَلَمْ يَتَّخِذْ وَلَداً وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ شَرِيكٌ فِى المُلْكِ

(He to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and Who has begotten no son and for Whom there is no partner in the dominion.) Allah states that He is above having any offspring or partner. Then He tells us:

خَـلِقُ كُلِّ شَىْءٍفَقَدَّرَهُ تَقْدِيراً

(He has created everything, and has measured it exactly according to its due measurements.) meaning, everything apart from Him is created and subject to Him. He is the Creator, Lord, Master and God of all things, and everything is subject to His dominion, control and power.

Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an

The Arabic word tabaraka is very comprehensive, and cannot be understood fully and completely by "highly blessed", not even by a sentence. However, its meanings may be grasped by keeping in view the remaining portion

of vv. 1-2. Here it has been used to convey the following meanings:

(1) He is the most Beneficent: that is why He has bestowed the great blessing of Al-Furqan by degrees on His servant so that he may admonish all mankind.

(2)He is the most Exalted and Great: for the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth belongs to Him.

(3) He is the most Holy, Pure and Perfect: He is free from every tinge of shirk and has neither a partner in His Godhead, nor needs a son to succeed Him; for He is Ever-Lasting.

(4) He is the Highest and the Most Supreme in rank: the Kingdom and the Dominion wholly and solely belong to Him, and there is none who has any share in His Authority and Powers.

(5) He is the sole Creator of the universe and has created each and everything in it and predetermined its destiny. For further details, see E.N. 14 of AI Mu'minun and E.N. 19 of AI-Furqan.

Al-Furqan: The Criterion. The Qur'an has been called Al-Furqan because it is the Criterion for judging right and wrong virtue and vice, truth and falsehood.

The word nazzala implies revelation of the Qur'an piecemeal by degrees. The wisdom of this introductory remark will be explained in the study of verse 32, where the objection of the disbelievers of Makkah -as to why the Qur'an has not been sent down all at once-has been dealt with

“..... warner to all mankind": To warn all mankind of the evil consequences of their heedlessness and deviation. The warner may be AI-Furgan or the Holy Prophet to whom it was revealed. In fact, both were the warners because they were both sent for one and the same purpose. The message of the Qur'an and Prophethood of Muhammad (Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) were not meant for any particular country but for the whole world; and not for their own time, but for all times to come. This has been stated at several places in the Qur'an; for instance: "O Muhammad, say, O mankind, I am a Messenger to all of you from Allah....." (Al-A`raf: 158); "..... and this Qur'an has been revealed to me so that I should thereby warn you all and whom it may reach." (Al An'am: 19); "We have sent you only as a bearer of good news and as a warner to all mankind." (Saba: 28); and "We have sent you as a mercy to all mankind." (Al Anbiya': 107) The Holy Prophet himself has stated this clearly in the Hadith; for instance, he said: "I have been sent to all men-the red and the black." "Before me a Prophet was sent only to his own people, but 1 have been sent to all mankind." (Bukhari, Muslim). "I have been sent to all mankind, and I am the Last of the Prophets." (Muslim).

Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs

And from his narration on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that he said concerning the interpretation of Allah's saying (Blessed is): '(Blessed is) He says: He is the Possessor of grace; it is also said that this means: He is exalted and transcendent above and exonerated from having a son or partner (He Who hath revealed unto His slave) Muhammad (pbuh) (the Criterion (of right and wrong)) He Who sent Gabriel with the Qur'an, (that he) Muhammad (pbuh) (may be a warner) a Messenger warning by the Qur'an (to the peoples) the jinn and human beings.