2 - Al Baqara (The cow)

4 Tafsir(s) related to verse 2.228

Al-Jalalayn

Divorced women shall wait by themselves, before remarrying, for three periods (qurū’in is the plural of qar’), of purity or menstruation — these are two different opinions — which begin from the moment of divorce. This [stipulation] applies to those who have been sexually penetrated but not to those otherwise, on account of His saying, there shall be no [waiting] period for you to reckon against them [Q. 33:49]. The waiting period for immature or menopausal women is three months; pregnant women, on the other hand, must wait until they give birth, as stated in the sūrat al-Talāq [Q. 65:4], while slavegirls must wait two months, according to the Sunna. And it is not lawful for them to hide what God has created in their wombs, of child or menstruation, if they believe in God and the Last Day. Their mates, their spouses, have a better right to restore them, to bring them back, even if they refuse, in such time, that is, during the waiting period, if they desire to set things right, between them, and put pressure on the woman [to return]; the statement is not a condition for the possibility of return, but an incitement [to set things right] in the case of repealed divorce; the term ahaqq, ‘better right to’, does not denote any priority, since, in any case, no other person has the right to marry them during their waiting period; women shall have rights, due from their spouses, similar to those, rights, due from them, with justice, as stipulated by the Law, in the way of kind conjugality and not being harmed; but their men have a degree above them, in rights, as in their duty to obey their husbands, because of their [the husbands’] payment of a dowry and their [husbands] being the bread-winners; God is Mighty, in His Kingdom, Wise, in what He has ordained for His creatures.

Al-Qushairi

Divorced women shall wait by themselves for three periods.

He commanded divorced women to wait, out of respect for spousal relations, meaning, 'if the relationship has been cut off between the two of you, observe the condition of fulfilling [the waiting period] for the sake of what occurred in the past in the relationship. Do not put others quickly in place of [the spouse]. Be patient until the allotted period has passed.' Don't you see that the bride whose marriage was not consummated is not commanded to undergo a waiting period, since there were no spousal relations between the two of them?

[2:228 cont'd] And it is not lawful for them to hide what God has created in their wombs if they believe in God and the Last Day.

It means that even if the tie between the two of you has been severed, do not severe what God has established in the parental relationship.

[2:228 cont'd] Their mates have a better right to restore them

It means that the one who had the prior relationship has a better right to restore the breach in the marriage.

[2:228 cont'd] in such time if they desire to set things right;

It means that the [husband's] intention to return should be to set things right in the estrangement that occurred, not to prolong the waiting period for her if he has resolved to divorce her after he has taken her back.

[2:228 cont'd] women shall have rights similar to those due from them, with justice;

It means if he has a right over her for what he has expended in wealth, she has a right for prior service in the situation.

[2:228 cont'd] but their men have a degree above them; God is Mighty, Wise.

[He has the degree] in merit (fa?īla), but she has a prerogative (mazīya) in frailty and human weakness.

Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an

That is, ''Fear Allah and do not divorce your wives for frivolous and unjustifiable reasons, for He knows everything."

Jurists differ in the interpretation of this verse. According to one section of them, divorce does not take place and the husband retains the right of reunion up to the time of the purification of the wife by a bath after the third monthly course. This is the opinion of Hadrat Abu Bakr, `Umar, `Ali, Ibn `Abbas, Abu Musa Ash-'ari, Ibn Mas'ud and some other Companions of the first rank, and the Hanafi jurists have accepted the same. On the contrary, the other section says that the husband forfeits the right of reunion as soon as the wife has a discharge of the third monthly course. This opinion is held by Hadrat `A'ishah, Ibn `Umar and Zaid bin Thabit, and the Shafe'i and the Maliki jurists have adopted the same. It must, however, be clearly understood that the husband retains the right of reunion only in the case when he has pronounced one divorce or two divorces, but he forfeits the right of reunion when he has pronounced three divorces.

Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs

(Women who are divorced) through one or two pronouncements of divorce (shall wait) shall wait a certain time called the waiting period, (keeping themselves apart, three (monthly) courses) for three menstruation periods. (And it is not lawful for them that they should conceal) their pregnancy (that which Allah hath created in their wombs) of offspring (if they are believers in Allah and the Last Day. And their husbands would do better to take them back) to take them back as their wives (in that case) during the waiting period or if they are pregnant (if they desire reconciliation.) This is because in the early period of Islam, when a man divorced his wife via one or two pronouncements of divorce, he had a better right to take her back after the lapse of the waiting period, before her marrying again. Later, the right to take one's wife back was abrogated by the saying of Allah: (Divorce must be pronounced twice). Similarly, a man had a better right to take his wife back if she were pregnant, even if he had pronounced her divorce a thousand times. This was however abrogated by Allah's saying: (divorce them for their (legal) period) [65:1]. (And they (women) have rights) and inviolability with their husbands (similar to those) of their husbands (over them in kindness) in kind companionship and intercourse, (and men are a degree above them) in relation to the reasoning faculty, inheritance, blood money, as witnesses in court and also that which they owe them in terms of expenditure and service. (Allah is Mighty) in that He is vengeful vis-"-vis whoever leaves that which is between a husband and wife of rights and inviolability, (Wise) regarding that which He has ruled between them.